A technical and socio-economic survey was conducted in Dong Thap, Can Tho and An Giang, provinces of Vietnam in 2009. The results showed that most of the small scale farmers of striped catfish (Pangasius hypothalamus) carry out fish pond culture, developed and operated by self-learned experience and from neighbours knowledge. The mean pond depth varied from 3.5 to 4.0 m, ranging from 2 to 6 m. Most of the fish farms have extremely high stocking density, with an average of about 40 fish m−2, in some cases up to 70 fish per m2. The average yields and net income of small-scales pond farming is about 21–27 kg per m2 crop−1 and US$ 0.184–0.329 kg−1 crop−1 respectively. These figures are not significantly different compared with large-scale pond farming. About 75%, 86% and 80% of fish farmers in Dong Thap, Can Tho and An Giang province, respectively, received positive net returns. Farm-made feed is still playing an important role because of higher net profit compared with commercial pellet feeds. Rice bran and trash fish are the main feed ingredients for farm-made feed formulations. Striped catfish farmers are now actively searching for locally produced plant protein sources as alternatives to marine trash fish or fish meal.