Potassium permanganate (PM) is a therapeutic agent in aquaculture with strong oxidant properties. In this study, the effects of potassium permanganate treatment (PMT) on stress response and blood biochemistry were investigated in goldfish Carassius auratus. Two triplicate groups of fish were exposed to either 10 mg L−1 PM or clean water, over 30 min. Blood samples were collected at 0 and 0.5 h after exposure as well as 3 and 24 h. PMT caused significant increase in serum cortisol and glucose levels, 0.5 h post exposure, which stayed elevated until 24 h. Sodium decreased after exposure and did not return to initial levels. Chloride decreased at 0.5 and 3 h, but returned to initial levels at 24 h. Calcium decreased at 0.5 h and returned to initial at 3 h, but significantly increased at 24 h. Total protein, albumin and globulin levels increased at 3 h and stayed elevated until 24 h. Albumin:globulin ratio (A:G) levels decreased at 24 h post exposure. Results indicated that short-term PMT caused stress response, hydromineral imbalance and possibly change in blood protein profile in goldfish, which lasted until 24 h post treatment.