Effects of dissolved carbon dioxide on energy metabolism and stress responses in European seabass (Dicentrarchus labrax)


Correspondence: J W Schrama, Aquaculture and Fisheries Group, Wageningen University, P. O. Box 338, 6700 AH Wageningen, The Netherlands. E-mail: johan.schrama@wur.nl


Elevated carbon dioxide concentrations reduce feed intake and growth in several fish species and induce stress responses. In this study, the effects of moderately elevated CO2 levels on performance, energy partitioning, swimming activity and stress response in European seabass were assessed. European seabass (140.0 g) were reared under two levels of CO2 (1.6 and 7.0 mg L−1) and two feeding levels (FLs) (maintenance and satiation) for 60 days, and fish swimming speed was recorded. At the end of the experiment, fish were subjected to an acute stress test. Blood cortisol, glucose and lactate were analysed. Energy and nitrogen balances were quantified based on measurements of body composition and digestibility coefficients. Moderately elevated chronic CO2 level did neither affect energy requirements for maintenance nor the utilization of digestible energy for growth. However, swimming activity data suggests that FL dependent alterations in energy partitioning took place. Blood cortisol values after the acute stress were affected by additional CO2 exposure and this effect was also dependent on FL. The elevated CO2 exposure of 7.0 mg L−1 appears to act as a chronic stressor as adaptive responses took place, however, this CO2 exposure seems to be still within the allostatic load of the fish.