A feeding trial was conducted to investigate the complete substitution of either fish oil (FO) or squid liver oil (SLO) with crude palm oil (CPO), canola oil (CO) sunflower oil (SFO) or linseed oil (LO), as the sole added lipid source in diets fed to triplicate groups of giant freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii (initial weight = 0.42 ± 0.01 g) for 6 weeks. Prawns fed the CO or SLO diets showed significantly higher (P < 0.05) specific growth rate than those fed the FO or CPO diets. The feed conversion ratio of the prawns was significantly better when fed the CO diet, compared with the FO, CPO, SFO and LO diets. The muscle eicosapentaenoic acid content of prawns fed the vegetable oil (VO) diets were not significantly different (P > 0.05) from those fed the FO diet, although all VO-based diets led to a significantly lower docosahexaenoic acid content compared with prawns fed the FO or SLO diet. The whole-body total carotenoid content was significantly lower for prawns fed the SLO diet compared with prawns on the CO or CPO diets. The successful use of VO instead of marine-based oils in prawn diets will likely reduce feeding costs associated with M. rosenbergii aquaculture.