• embryonic development;
  • yolk-sac larvae;
  • incubation temperature;
  • Lutjanus peru ;
  • Pacific red snapper


The effect of incubation temperature on embryonic development and yolk-sac larva of the Pacific red snapper Lutjanus peru were evaluated by testing the effect of 26, 28 and 30°C, as this is the natural thermal interval reported during the spawning season of Pacific red snapper in the Gulf of California, Mexico. Sixteen developmental stages were observed. The incubation temperature affected the rate of development and time to hatching, being shorter at 30 than at 26°C, but no significant effect (P < 0.05) on larval length at hatching was registered. The depletion rate of yolk sac and oil globule was affected by incubation temperature particularly during the first 12 h post hatching (hph). At the end of the experiment (48 hph), significantly (P < 0.05) larger larvae were recorded at 26°C (TL = 3.22 ± 0.01 mm) than at 28° (TL = 3.01 ± 0.02 mm) and 30°C (TL = 2.97 ± 0.05 mm). Incubation of newly fertilized eggs at 26°C produces larger larvae, which may help to improve feeding efficiency and survival during first feeding.