SEARCH

SEARCH BY CITATION

Table S1. Moving average over the magnetostratigraphic characteristic remanent magnetization (ChRM) directions of the Chaka section. Columns labelled as follows: I and D-inclination and declination in stratigraphic coordinates; α95-angular radius of 95% confidence on mean direction; n-number of sites used to calculate mean direction; APWP reference pole-Eurasian paleomagnetic pole from Besse and Courtillot (2002), with λp the latitude and φp the longitude, A 95-pole 95% confidence limit, and dp/dm for the corresponding confidence angles; R-vertical-axis rotation (clockwise is positive); ΔR - 95% confidence limit on R; Rotation is derived from observed direction minus expected direction at locality calculated from reference pole.

Figure S1. Location map for the Chaka magnetostartigraphic section. Brown, green, and purple lines indicate Unit Na, Nb, and Nc, respectively. Units are marked with time intervals from ~11 Ma, 8.6 Ma, 4.6 Ma and 3.1 Ma. Also shown are the base of the magstrat as the green star, and change of dip site in red star.

Figure S2. High-temperature magnetic susceptibility measurements (χ-T curves) for selected samples from the Chaka section. A drop at about 585 °C on the heating curves of samples suggests that magnetite is a contributor to magnetic susceptibility. The large residual magnetic susceptibility above 585 °C becomes effectively zero at ~680 °C, the Néel temperature of hematite, which suggests that hematite is not only present but also in great amount due to its weakly magnetism.

Figure S3. IRM acquisition curves for selected samples from the Chaka section. The IRM continues to be acquired from 0 to 1.5 T and never reach saturation beyond 1.5 T, Which indicates the abundant presence of high coercivity magnetic minerals such as hematite.

Please note: Wiley-Blackwell is not responsible for the content or functionality of any supporting materials supplied by the authors. Any queries (other than missing material) should be directed to the corresponding author for the article.

FilenameFormatSizeDescription
bre_512_sm_figuredr1.pdf396KSupporting info item
bre_512_sm_figuredr2.pdf19KSupporting info item
bre_512_sm_figuredr3.pdf12KSupporting info item
bre_512_sm_table1.doc103KSupporting info item
bre_512_sm_captions.doc32KSupporting info item

Please note: Wiley Blackwell is not responsible for the content or functionality of any supporting information supplied by the authors. Any queries (other than missing content) should be directed to the corresponding author for the article.