• 1
    Palma R., Vidon N., Houin G., Pfeiffer A., Rongier M., Barre, J., Bernier JJ. Influence of bile salts and lipids on intestinal absorption of griseofulvin in man. Eur J clin Pharmac 1986; 31: 319325.
  • 2
    Riley SA, Kim M., Sutcliffe F., Kapas M., Rowland M., Turnberg LA. Effects of a non-absorbable osmotic load on drug absorption in healthy volunteers. Br J clin Pharmac 1992; 34: 4046.
  • 3
    Barnwell SG, Laudanski T., Dwyer M., Story MJ, Guard P., Cole S., Attwood D. Reduced bioavailability of atenolol in man: the role of bile acids. Int J Pharm 1993; 89: 245250.
  • 4
    Lennernäs H., Nilsson D., Aquilonius S-M, Ahrenstedt Ö, Knutson L., Paalzow LK. The effect of L-leucine on the absorption of levodopa, studied by regional jejunal perfusion in man. Br J clin Pharmac 1993; 35: 243250.
  • 5
    Artursson P., Ungell A-L, Löfroth J-L. Selective paracellular permeability in two models of intestinal absorption: cultured monolayers of human intestinal epithelial cells and rat intestinal segments. Pharm Res 1993; 10: 11231129.
  • 6
    Olaisson G., Sjödahl R., Leandersson P., Tagesson C. Abnormal intestinal permeability pattern in colonic Crohn's disease. Absorption of low molecular weight polyethylene glycols after oral or colonic load. Scand J Gastroenterol 1989; 24: 571576.
  • 7
    Cobden J., Rothwell J., Axon ATR. Intestinal permeability and screening tests for coelial disease. Gut 1980; 21: 512518.
  • 8
    Pappenheimer JR, Reiss KZ. Contribution of solvent drag through intercellular junctions to absorption of nutrients by the small intestine of the rat. J Membr Biol 1987; 100: 123136.
  • 9
    Pappenheimer JR, Volpp K. Transmucosal impedance of small intestine: correlation with transport of sugars and amino acids. Am J Physiol 1992; 263: C480C493.
  • 10
    Kitazawa S., Ito H., Johno I., Takahashi T., Takenaka H. Generality in effects of transmucosal fluid movement and glucose on drug absorption from the rat small intestine. Chem Pharm Bull 1978; 26: 915924.
  • 11
    Karino A., Hayashi M., Horie T., Awazu S., Minami H., Hanano M. Solvent drag effect in drug intestinal absorption. I. Studies on drug and D2O absorption clearances. J Pharm Dyn 1982; 5: 410417.
  • 12
    Atisook K., Madara JL. An oligopeptide permeates intestinal tight junctions at glucose-elicited dilatations. Gastroenterology 1991; 100: 719724.
  • 13
    Ma TY, Hollandaer D., Erickson RA, Truong H., Krugliak P. Is the small intestinal epithelium truly “tight” to inulin permeation Am J Physiol 1991; 260: G669G676.
  • 14
    Jodal M., Sjöqvist A., Lundgren O. Effect of glucose on transport of fluid and polyethyelene glycol 4000 in cat jejunum in vivo Gastroenterology 1986; 96: A241.
  • 15
    Lu H-H, Thomas J., Fleischer D. Influence of d-glucose-induced water absorption on rat jejunal uptake of two passively absorbed drugs. J pharm Sci 1991; 81: 2125.
  • 16
    Ungell A-L, Utter L., Sjöström M. Barrier properties of the intestinal mucosa during stimulation of solvent drag. Z Gastroenterol 1992; 30: 237.
  • 17
    Lennernäs H., Ahrenstedt Ö, Hällgren R., Knutson L., Ryde M., Paalzov LK. Regional jejunal perfusion, a new approach to study oral drug absorption in man. Pharm Res 1992; 9, 12431251.
  • 18
    Knutson L., Odlind B., Hällgren R. A new technique for segmental jejunal perfusion in man. Am J Gastroenterol 1989; 84: 12781284.
  • 19
    Soergel KH. Flow measurements of test meals and fasting contents in the human small intestine. In Gastrointestinal motility 1971; eds. Demling L., Ottenjann R. pp. 8192. New York: Georg Thieme.
  • 20
    Kerlin P., Zinzmeister A., Phillips S. Relationship of motility to flow of contents in the human small intestine. Gastroenterology 1982; 82: 701706.
  • 21
    Rolston DDK, Zinzuvadia SN, Mathan VI. Evaluation of the efficacy of oral rehydration solutions using human whole gut perfusion. Gut 1990; 31: 11151119.
  • 22
    Lee I-D, Fagerholm U., Lennernäs H., Amidon GL. Study of hydrodynamic characteristics in human intestine applying residence time distribution analysis. Urtti Arto Ed: In Symposium on methods to overcome biological barriers in drug delivery. August 26–28. Kuopio University Publications A Pharm Sci 1993; 10: p 73.
  • 23
    Iga K., Ogawa Y., Yashiki T., Shimamoto T. Estimation of drug absorption rates using a deconvolution method with nonequal sampling times. J Pharmacokin Biopharm 1986; 14: 213225.
  • 24
    Eichelbaum M., Ochs HR, Roberts, Somogyi Pharmacokinetics and metabolism of antipyrine (phenazone) after intravenous and oral administration. Arzneim-Forsch/Drug Res 1982; 32: 575578.
  • 25
    Taylor DC. Sites and mechanisms of intestinal drug absorption. Pharm Int 1986; 6: 179183.
  • 26
    Ponto Boles LL, Schoenwald RD. Furosemide (Frusemide). A pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic review (Part I). Clin Pharmacokinet 1990; 18 (5): 381408.
  • 27
    Yeo CJ, Bastidas JA, Schmieg RE Jr, Zinner MJ. Meal-stimulated absorption of water and electrolytes in canine jejunum. Am J Physiol 1990; 259: G402G409.
  • 28
    Bastidas A., Zinner MJ, Bastidas JA, Orandle MS, Yeo CJ. Influence of meal composition on canine jejunal water and electrolyte absorption. Gastroenterology 1992; 102: 486492.
  • 29
    Nellans H. Paracellular intestinal transport: modulation of absorption. In Mechanisms of peptide and protein absorption part B. Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews 1991; 7: 339364.
  • 30
    Aungst BJ. Novel formulation strategies for improving oral bioavailability of drugs with poor membrane permeation or presystemic metabolism. J pharm Sci 1993; 82: 979.
  • 31
    Ledermann H., Bippi H., Boekens H., Frolich JC, Hermann H., Schmitt-Landherr K. Variability in the pharmacokinetics of atenolol and metoprolol. Drug Res 1985; 35: 848851.
  • 32
    Ranadive SA, Chen AX, Serajuddin ATM. Relative lipophilicities and structural-pharmacological considerations of various angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors. Pharm Res 1992; 9: 14801486.
  • 33
    Gisolfi CV, Summers RW, Schedl HP, Bleiler TL, Oppliger RA. Human intestinal water absorption: direct vs. indirect measurements. Am J Physiol 1990; 258: G216G222.
  • 34
    Hunt JB, Elliott EJ, Fairclough PD, Clark ML, Farthing MJG. Water and solute absorption from hypotonic glucose-electrolyte solutions in human jejunum. Gut 1992; 33: 479483.
  • 35
    Hirasawa T., Muraoka T., Karino A., Hayashi M., Awazu S. Solvent drag in jejunal absorption of salicyclic acid and antipyrine obtained by in situ single-pass perfusion method in rat. J Pharm Dyn 1984; 7: 246253.
  • 36
    Ochsenfart H., Winne D. The contribution of solvent drag to the intestinal absorption of the basic drugs amidopyrine and antipyrine from the jejunum of the rat. Naunyn-Schmiedeberg's Arch Pharmac 1974; 281: 175196.
  • 37
    See N., Bass P. Nutrient-induced changes in the permeability of the rat jejunal mucosa. J pharm Sci 1993; 82: 721724.
  • 38
    Csa'ky TZ. ed. Pharmacology of intestinal permeation II 1984: Berlin, Heidelberg, New York, Tokyo: Springer Verlag.