• 1
    Maxwell SRJ, Walley T. Teaching prescribing and therapeutics. Br J Clin Pharmacol 2003; 55: 496503.
  • 2
    Aronson J, Webb D, Henderson G, Rawlins M. A prescription for better prescribing. BMJ 2006; 333: 45960.
  • 3
    Maxwell SRJ, Cascorbi I, Orme M, Webb D. Educating European (junior) doctors for safe prescribing. Basic Clin Pharmacol Toxicol 2007; 101: 395400.
  • 4
    Heaton A, Webb D, Maxwell SRJ. Undergraduate preparation for prescribing: the views of 2413 UK medical students and recent graduates. Br J Clin Pharmacol 2008; 66: 12834.
  • 5
    The GMC Education Committee. How prepared are medical graduates to begin practice? A comparison of three diverse UK medical schools [online]. Available at (last accessed 2 February 2009).
  • 6
    Tam VC, Knowles SR, Cornish PL, Fine N, Marchesano R, Etchells EE. Frequency, type and clinical importance of medication history errors at admission to hospital: a systematic review. CMAJ 2005; 173: 5105.
  • 7
    Cornish PL, Knowles SR, Marchesano R, Tam V, Shadowitz S, Juurlink DN, Etchells EE. Unintended medication discrepancies at the time of hospital admission. Arch Intern Med 2005; 165: 4249.
  • 8
    Herxheimer A. A framework for taking a treatment history. J R Coll Physicians Lond 1989; 23: 223.
  • 9
    Aronson JK, Ferner RE. Joining the DoTS: new approach to classifying adverse drug reactions. BMJ 2003; 327: 12225.
  • 10
    Grahame-Smith DG, Aronson JK. The drug history and the clinical examination and investigation of drug effects. In: The Oxford Textbook of Clinical Pharmacology and Drug Therapy, 3rd edn. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2002: 16770.
  • 11
    Reeder TA, Mutnick A. Pharmacist versus physician obtained medication histories. Am J Health Syst Pharm 2008; 65: 85760.
  • 12
    Carter MK, Allin DM, Scott LA, Grauer D. Pharmacist acquired medication histories in a university hospital emergency department. Am J Health Syst Pharm 2006; 63: 25003.
  • 13
    Fertleman M, Barnett N, Patel T. Improving medication management for patients: the effect of a pharmacist on post admission ward rounds. Qual Saf Health Care 2005; 14: 20711.
  • 14
    De Smet PA, Denneboom W, Kramers C, Grol R. A composite screening tool for medication reviews of outpatients: general issues with specific examples. Drugs Aging 2007; 24: 73360.
  • 15
    Fialová D, Topinková E, Gambassi G, Finne-Soveri H, Jónsson PV, Carpenter I, Schroll M, Onder G, Sórbye LW, Wagner C, Reissigová J, Bernabei R; AdHOC Project Research Group. Potentially inappropriate medication use among elderly home care patients in Europe. JAMA 2005; 293: 134858.
  • 16
    Cohen JS. Avoiding adverse reactions. Effective lower-dose drug therapies for older patients. Geriatrics 2000; 55: 5464.
  • 17
    Morris JN, Fries BE, Steel K, Ikegami N, Bernabei R, Carpenter GI, Gilgen R, Hirdes JP, Topinková E. Comprehensive clinical assessment in community setting: applicability of the MDS-HC. J Am Geriatr Soc 1997; 45: 101724.
  • 18
    Saseen JJ, Grady SE, Hansen LB, Hodges BM, Kovacs SJ, Martinez LD, Murphy JE, Page RL, Reichert MG, Stringer KA, Taylor CT. Future clinical pharmacy practitioners should be board-certified specialists. Pharmacotherapy 2006; 26: 181625.
  • 19
    Holding D. Starting a pharmacy technician-led drug round. Hosp Pharm 2004; 11: 4778.
  • 20
    Lenderink BW, Egberts TCG. Closing the loop of the medication process using electronic medication administration registration. Pharm World Sci 2004; 26: 18590.
  • 21
    Agrawal A, Wu W, Khachewatsky I. Evaluation of an electronic medication reconciliation system in inpatient setting in an acute care hospital. Stud Health Technol Inform 2007; 129: 102731.
  • 22
    Cornish P. Avoid the crush’: hazards of medication administration in patients with dysphagia or a feeding tube. CMAJ 2005; 172: 8712.
  • 23
    Donyai P, O'Grady K, Jacklin A, Barber N, Franklin BD. The effects of electronic prescribing on the quality of prescribing. Br J Clin Pharmacol 2008; 65: 2307.
  • 24
    Andersen SE. Implementing a new drug record system: a qualitative study of difficulties perceived by physicians and nurses. Qual Saf Health Care 2002; 11: 1924.
  • 25
    Gommans J, McIntosh P, Bee S, Allan W. Improving the quality of written prescriptions in a general hospital: the influence of 10 years of serial audits and targeted interventions. Intern Med J 2008; 38: 2438.
  • 26
    Cummings J, Bush P, Smith D, Matuszewski K. Bar-coding medication administration overview and consensus recommendations. Am J Health Syst Pharm 2005; 62: 26269.
  • 27
    Poon EG, Cina JL, Churchill W, Patel N, Featherstone E, Rothschild JM, Keohane CA, Whittemore AD, Bates DW, Gandhi TK. Medication dispensing errors and potential adverse drug events before and after implementing bar code technology in the pharmacy. Ann Intern Med 2006; 145: 42634.
  • 28
    Paoletti RD, Suess TM, Lesko MG, Feroli AA, Kennel JA, Mahler JM, Sauders T. Using bar-code technology and medication observation methodology for safer medication administration. Am J Health Syst Pharm 2007; 64: 53643.
  • 29
    McDonald CJ. Computerization can create safety hazards: a bar-coding near miss. Ann Intern Med 2006; 144: 51016.
  • 30
    Van Onzenoort HA, Van De Plas A, Kessels AG, Veldhorst-Janssen NM, Van Der Kuy PH, Neef C. Factors influencing bar-code verification by nurses during medication administration in a Dutch hospital. Am J Health Syst Pharm 2008; 65: 6448.
  • 31
    Aronson JK, Price D, Ferner RE. A strategy for regulatory action when new adverse effects of a licensed product emerge. Drug Saf 2009; 32: 918.
  • 32
    European Medicines Agency. Template for EU risk management plan (EU–RMP) [online]. Available at (last accessed 2 February 2009).
  • 33
    Ciminera JL, Lease MP. Developing control charts to review and monitor medication errors. Hosp Pharm 1992; 27: 192–3, 195–7.
  • 34
    Benneyan JC. Performance of number-between g-type statistical control charts for monitoring adverse events. Health Care Manag Sci 2001; 4: 31936.
  • 35
    Institute for Safe Medication Practices. New look-alike name pair: Nexium and Nexavar. ISMP Quarterly Action Agenda – January–March 2008. Available at (last accessed 2 February 2000).
  • 36
    Lambert BL. Predicting look-alike and sound-alike medication errors. Am J Health Syst Pharm 1997; 54: 116171.
  • 37
    Looi KL, Black PN. How often do physicians review medication charts on ward rounds? BMC Clin Pharmacol 2008; 8: 9.
  • 38
    Flynn EA, Barker KN, Pepper GA, Bates DW, Mikeal RL. Comparison of methods for detecting medication errors in 36 hospitals and skilled-nursing facilities. Am J Health Syst Pharm 2002; 59: 43646.
  • 39
    National Patient Safety Agency. Rapid Response Report: NPSA/2008/RRR05. Reducing Dosing Errors with Opioid Medicines. London: National Patient Safety Agency, 2008.
  • 40
    Mostrous A. Secret computer deals that are costing the taxpayer billions. Only 30% of Government's IT projects completed on time. The Times, 2 February 2009: 6.
  • 41
    Collins T. Something must be done to break the cycle of failure. The Times, 2 February 2009: 7.
  • 42
    Horne R, Weinman J. Patients' beliefs about prescribed medicines and their role in adherence to treatment in chronic physical illness. J Psychosom Res 1999; 47: 55567.
  • 43
    Pound P, Britten N, Morgan M, Yardley L, Pope C, Daker-White G, Campbell R. Resisting medicines: a synthesis of qualitative studies of medicine taking. Soc Sci Med 2005; 61: 13355.
  • 44
    Kripilani S, Yao X, Haynes RB. Interventions to enhance medication adherence in chronic medical conditions: a systematic review. Arch Intern Med 2007; 167: 54049.
  • 45
    Herxheimer A. Many NSAID users who bleed don't know when to stop: uncomprehending ‘adherence’ is dangerous. BMJ 1998; 316: 492.
  • 46
    DeWitt JE, Sorofman BA. A model for understanding patient attribution of adverse drug reaction symptoms. Drug Inf J 1999; 33: 90720.
  • 47
    Pound P, Britten N, Morgan M, Yardley L, Pope C, Daker-White G, Campbell R. Resisting medicines: a synthesis of qualitative studies of medicine taking. Soc Sci Med 2005; 61: 13355.
  • 48
    Sleath B, Chewning B, Svarstad B, Roter D. Patient expression of complaints and adherence problems with medications during chronic disease medical visits. J Soc Adm Pharm 2000; 7: 180.