• 1
    Cohen M, Demers C, Gurfinkel E, Turpie A, Fromell G, Goodman S, Langer A, Califf R, Fox K, Premmereur J, Bigonzi F, Stephens J, Weatherley B. A comparison of low molecular weight heparin with unfractionated heparin for unstable coronary artery disease. N Engl J Med 1997; 337: 44752.
  • 2
    Antman EM, McCabe C, Gurfinkel E, Turpie A, Alexander G, Bernink P, Salein D, De Luna A, Fox K, LaBlanche J-M, Radley D, Premmereur J, Braunwald E. Enoxaparin prevents death and cardiac ischaemic events in unstable angina/non-Q-wave myocardial infarction. Results of the thrombolysis in myocardial infarction (TIMI) 11B trial. Circulation 1999; 100: 1593601.
  • 3
    Antman EM, Morrow DA, McCabe CH, Murphy SA, Ruda M, Sadowski Z, Budaj A, Lopez-Candales J, Guneri S, Jiang F, White H, Fox K, Braunwald E. Enoxaparin versus unfractionated heparin with fibrinolysis for ST-elevation myocardial infarction. N Engl J Med 2006; 354: 147788.
  • 4
    The SYNERGY Trial Investigators. Enoxaparin vs unfractionated heparin in high-risk patients with non-ST-segment elevation acute coronary syndromes managed with an intended early invasive strategy. JAMA 2004; 292: 4554.
  • 5
    Merli G, Spiro T, Olsson C, Abildgaard U, Davidson B, Eldor A, Elias D, Grigg A, Musset D, Rodgers G, Trowbridge A, Yusen R, Zawilska K. Subcutaneous enoxaparin once or twice daily compared with intravenous heparin for the treatment of venous thromboembolic disease. Ann Intern Med 2001; 134: 191202.
  • 6
    Quinlan DJ, McQuillan A, Eikelboom JW. Low-molecular-weight-heparin compared with intravenous heparin for treatment of pulmonary embolism. Ann Intern Med 2004; 140: 17583.
  • 7
    Aroney CN, Aylward P, Kelly A-M, Chew DP, Clune E. Guidelines for the management of acute coronary syndromes 2006. Med J Aust 2006; 184 (Suppl.): S1S32.
  • 8
    Buller HR, Agnelli MD, Hull RD, Hyers TM, Prins MH, Raskob GE. Antithrombotic therapy for venous thromboembolic disease. Chest 2004; 126 (Suppl.): 401S28S.
  • 9
    Snow V, Qaseem A, Barry P, Hornbake ER, Rodnick JE, Tobolic T, Ireland B, Segal JB, Bass EB. Management of venous thromboembolism: a clinical practice guideline from the American College of Physicians and the Academy of Family Physicians. Ann Intern Med 2007; 146: 20410.
  • 10
    Lovenox® prescribing information. Available at (last accessed 6 April 2008).
  • 11
    Product information Clexane®. Available at (last accessed 6 April 2008).
  • 12
    Clexane® product information. Available at (last accessed 6 April 2008).
  • 13
    Thrombolysis in Myocardial Infarction (TIMI) 11A Investigators. Dose-ranging trial of enoxaparin for unstable angina: results of TIMI 11A. J Am Coll Cardiol 1997; 29: 147482.
  • 14
    Green B, Greenwood M, Saltissi D, Westhuyzen J, Kluver L, Rowell J, Atherton J. Dosing strategy for enoxaparin in patients with renal impairment presenting with acute coronary syndromes. Br J Clin Pharmacol 2004; 59: 28190.
  • 15
    Green B, Duffull SB. Development of a dosing strategy for enoxaparin in obese patients. Br J Clin Pharmacol 2003; 54: 96103.
  • 16
    Barras MA, Duffull SB, Atherton JJ, Green B. Individualized compared to conventional dosing of enoxaparin. Clin Pharmacol Ther 2008; 83: 88288.
  • 17
    Montalescot G, Collet J, Tanguy ML, Ankri A, Payot L, Dumaine R, Choussat R, Beygui F, Gallois V, Thomas D. Anti-Xa activity relates to survival and efficacy in unselected acute coronary syndrome patients treated with enoxaparin. Circulation 2004; 110: 39298.
  • 18
    Cockroft DW, Gault H. Prediction of creatinine clearance from serum creatinine. Nephron 1976; 16: 3141.
  • 19
    Green B, Duffull SB. Prospective evaluation of a D-Optimal designed population pharmacokinetic study. J Pharmacokinet Pharmacodyn 2003; 30: 14561.
  • 20
    Berkowitz S, Stinnett S, Cohen M, Fromell G, Bigonzi F. Prospective comparison of hemorrhagic complication after treatment with enoxaparin versus unfractionated heparin for unstable angina pectoris or non-ST-segment elevation acute myocardial infarction. Am J Cardiol 2001; 88: 123034.
  • 21
    Beal SL, Boeckmann A, Sheiner L. NONMEM User's Guide. Ellicot City, MD: Icon Development Solutions, 19992006.
  • 22
    Green B, Duffull S. What is the best size descriptor to use for pharmacokinetic studies in the obese? Br J Clin Pharmacol 2004; 58: 11933.
  • 23
    Han P, Duffull SB, Kirkpatrick CMJ, Green B. Dosing in obesity: a simple solution to a big problem. Clin Phamacol Ther 2007; 82: 5058.
  • 24
    Janmahasatian S, Duffull SB, Ash S, Ward LC, Byrne NM, Green B. Quantification of lean bodyweight. Clin Pharmacokinet 2005; 44: 105165.
  • 25
    Beal SL. Ways to fit a PK model with some data below the quantification limit. J Pharmacokinet Pharmacodyn 2001; 28: 481504.
  • 26
    Zhang L, Beal SL, Sheiner LB. Simultaneous vs. sequential analysis for population PK/PD data I: best-case performance. J Pharmacokinet Pharmacodyn 2003; 30: 387404.
  • 27
    Ettte EI, Williams P, Kim Y, Lane J, Liu M-J, Capparelli E. Model appropriateness and population pharmacokinetic modeling. J Clin Pharmacol 2003; 43: 61023.
  • 28
    Parke J, Holford NH, Charles BG. A procedure for generating bootstrap samples for the validation of nonlinear mixed-effects populations models. Comput Methods Programs Biomed 1999; 59: 1929.
  • 29
    Feng Y, Green B, Duffull SB, Kane-Gill SL, Bobek MB, Bies RR. Development of a dosage strategy in patients receiving enoxaparin by continuous intravenous infusion using modelling and simulation. Br J Clin Pharmacol 2006; 62: 16576.
  • 30
    Hulot J-S, Vantelon C, Urien S, Bouzamondo A. Effect of renal function on the pharmacokinetics of enoxaparin and consequences on dose adjustment. Ther Drug Monit 2004; 26: 30510.
  • 31
    Bruno R, Baille P, Retout S, Vivier N. Population pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of enoxaparin in unstable angina and non-ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction. Br J Clin Pharmacol 2002; 56: 40714.
  • 32
    Janmahasatian S, Duffull SB, Chagnac A, Kirkpatrick CMJ, Green B. Lean body mass normalizes the effect of obesity on renal function. Br J Clin Pharmacol 2008; 65: 96465.
  • 33
    Kim HK, Duffull SB, Green B. The effect of study design on pharmacokinetics in patients with impaired renal function. In: PAGE (2008) Abstr 1354. Available at http://wwwpage-meetingorg/?abstract=1354 (last accessed 8 November 2008).
  • 34
    Mould D, Chapelsky M, Aluri J, Swagzdis J, Samuels R, Granett J. A population pharmacokinetic–pharmacodynamic and logistic regression analysis of lotrafiban in patients. Clin Phamacol Ther 2001; 69: 21022.
  • 35
    Moscucci M, Fox KA, Cannon CO, Klein W. Predictors of major bleeding in acute coronary syndromes: the global registry of acute coronary events (GRACE). Eur Heart J 2003; 24: 181523.
  • 36
    Granger C, Goldberg RJ, Dabbous O, Pieper KS. Predictors of hospital mortality in the global registry of acute coronary events. Arch Intern Med 2003; 163: 234553.
  • 37
    Eriksson B, Dahl O, Rosencher N, Kurth A, Van Dijk C, Frostick S, Prins MH, Hettiarachchi R, Hantel S, Schnee J, Buller HR. Dabigatran etexilate versus enoxaparin for the prevention of venous thromboembolism after total hip replacement: a randomised, double-blind, non-inferiority trial. Lancet 2007; 370: 94956.
  • 38
    Samama MM, Cohen AT, Darmon J-Y, Desjardins L, Eldor A, Janbon C, Leizorovicz A, Nguyen H, Olsson C-G, Turpie AG, Weisslinger N. A comparison of enoxaparin with placebo for the prevention of venous thromboembolism in acutely ill medical patients. N Engl J Med 1999; 341: 793800.
  • 39
    Brophy D, Sica D. Use of enoxaparin in patients with chronic kidney disease. Drug Safety 2007; 30: 99194.
  • 40
    Hulot J-S, Montalescot G, Lechat P, Collet J-P, Ankri A, Urien S. Dosing strategy in patients with renal failure receiving enoxaparin for the treatment of non-ST-segment elevation acute coronary syndrome. Clin Pharmacol Ther 2005; 77: 54252.
  • 41
    Refludan® product information. Available at (last accessed 26 August 2009).
  • 42
    Sanchez-Pena P, Hulot J-S, Urien S, Ankri A, Collet J-P, Choussat R, Lechat P, Montalescot G. Anti-factor Xa kinetics after intravenous enoxaparin in patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention: a population model analysis. Br J Clin Pharmacol 2005; 60: 36473.
  • 43
    Kane-Gill SL, Feng Y, Bobek MB, Pruchnicki MC, Dasta JF. Administration of enoxaparin by continuous infusion in a naturalistic setting: analysis of renal function and safety. J Clin Pharm Ther 2005; 30: 20713.
  • 44
    Berges A, Laporte S, Epinat M, Zufferey P, Tranchand B, Decousus H, Mismetti P. Anti-factor Xa activity of enoxaparin administered at prophylactic dosage to patients over 75 years old. Br J Clin Pharmacol 2007; 64: 42838.