Emerging treatment options for type 2 diabetes

Authors

  • Milan K. Piya,

    Corresponding author
    1. Department of Diabetes and Endocrinology, Heart of England NHS Foundation Trust and
    2. Centre for Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism, School of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, College of Medical and Dental Sciences, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, UK
      Dr Milan K Piya, Department of Diabetes, Birmingham Heartlands Hospital, Birmingham B9 5SS, UK.
      Tel.: +44 121 4243392
      Fax: +44 121 4243105
      E-mail: m.k.piya@bham.ac.uk
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  • Abd A. Tahrani,

    1. Department of Diabetes and Endocrinology, Heart of England NHS Foundation Trust and
    2. Centre for Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism, School of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, College of Medical and Dental Sciences, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, UK
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  • Anthony H. Barnett

    1. Department of Diabetes and Endocrinology, Heart of England NHS Foundation Trust and
    2. Centre for Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism, School of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, College of Medical and Dental Sciences, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, UK
    Search for more papers by this author

Dr Milan K Piya, Department of Diabetes, Birmingham Heartlands Hospital, Birmingham B9 5SS, UK.
Tel.: +44 121 4243392
Fax: +44 121 4243105
E-mail: m.k.piya@bham.ac.uk

Abstract

Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is rapidly increasing in prevalence and is a major public health problem. It is a progressive disease which commonly requires multiple pharmacotherapy. Current options for treatment may have undesirable side effects (particularly weight gain and hypoglycaemia) and contraindications, and little effect on disease progression. Incretin based therapy is one of several newer therapies to improve glycaemia and is available in two different forms, dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitors and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) agonists. Use of these agents results in a ‘glucose-dependant’ increase in insulin secretion and glucagon suppression resulting in improved glycaemia with low incidence of hypoglycaemia. DPP-4 inhibitors are oral drugs which are weight neutral, while GLP-1 agonists are injected subcutaneously and help promote weight loss while improving glycaemia. GLP-1 agonists have also been shown to increase beta cell mass in rat models. Bariatric surgery is another option for the obese patient with T2DM, with blood glucose normalizing in over half of the patients following surgery. Other therapies in development for the treatment of T2DM include sodium-glucose transporter 2 (SGLT-2) inhibitors, glucagon receptor antagonists, glucokinase activators and sirtuins. In this article, we will review the various existing and emerging treatment options for T2DM.

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