• 1
    Breckenridge A. Pharmacology of drugs for HIV. Medicine 2009; 37: 3747.
  • 2
    Hughes CA, Robinson L, Tseng A, MacArthur RD. New antiretroviral drugs: a review of the efficacy, safety, pharmacokinetics, and resistance profile of tipranavir, darunavir, etravirine, rilpivirine, maraviroc, and raltegravir. Expert Opin Pharmacother 2009; 10: 244566.
  • 3
    Palella FJ Jr, Delaney KM, Moorman AC, Loveless MO, Fuhrer J, Satten GA, Aschman DJ, Holmberg SD. Declining morbidity and mortality among patients with advanced human immunodeficiency virus infection. HIV Outpatient Study Investigators. N Engl J Med 1998; 338: 85360.
  • 4
    Seth D, Kamat D, Montejo J. DRESS syndrome: a practical approach for primary care practitioners. Clin Pediatr (Phila) 2008; 47: 94752.
  • 5
    Wolf R, Orion E, Marcos B, Matz H. Life-threatening acute adverse cutaneous drug reactions. Clin Dermatol 2005; 23: 17181.
  • 6
    Williams PM, Conklin RJ. Erythema multiforme: a review and contrast from Stevens-Johnson syndrome/toxic epidermal necrolysis. Dent Clin North Am 2005; 49: 6776, viii.
  • 7
    Bastuji-Garin S, Fouchard N, Bertocchi M, Roujeau JC, Revuz J, Wolkenstein P. SCORTEN: a severity-of-illness score for toxic epidermal necrolysis. J Invest Dermatol 2000; 115: 14953.
  • 8
    Temesgen Z, Beri G. HIV and drug allergy. Immunol Allergy Clin North Am 2004; 24: 52131, viii.
  • 9
    Wit FW, Kesselring AM, Gras L, Richter C, van der Ende ME, Brinkman K, Lange JM, de Wolf F, Reiss P. Discontinuation of nevirapine because of hypersensitivity reactions in patients with prior treatment experience, compared with treatment-naive patients: the ATHENA cohort study. Clin Infect Dis 2008; 46: 93340.
  • 10
    Yoshizawa S, Yasuoka A, Kikuchi Y, Honda M, Gatanaga H, Tachikawa N, Hirabayashi Y, Oka S. A 5-day course of oral desensitization to trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (T/S) in patients with human immunodeficiency virus type-1 infection who were previously intolerant to T/S. Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol 2000; 85: 2414.
  • 11
    Pirmohamed M, Park BK. HIV and drug allergy. Curr Opin Allergy Clin Immunol 2001; 1: 3116.
  • 12
    Pichler WJ, Yawalkar N, Britschgi M, Depta J, Strasser I, Schmid S, Kuechler P, Naisbitt D. Cellular and molecular pathophysiology of cutaneous drug reactions. Am J Clin Dermatol 2002; 3: 22938.
  • 13
    Park BK, Naisbitt DJ, Gordon SF, Kitteringham NR, Pirmohamed M. Metabolic activation in drug allergies. Toxicology 2001; 158: 1123.
  • 14
    Pichler WJ, Yawalkar N. Allergic reactions to drugs: involvement of T cells. Thorax 2000; 55: (Suppl. 2): S615.
  • 15
    Schnyder B, Mauri-Hellweg D, Zanni M, Bettens F, Pichler WJ. Direct, MHC-dependent presentation of the drug sulfamethoxazole to human alphabeta T cell clones. J Clin Invest 1997; 100: 13641.
  • 16
    Zanni MP, von Greyerz S, Schnyder B, Brander KA, Frutig K, Hari Y, Valitutti S, Pichler WJ. HLA-restricted, processing- and metabolism-independent pathway of drug recognition by human alpha beta T lymphocytes. J Clin Invest 1998; 102: 15918.
  • 17
    Naisbitt DJ. Drug hypersensitivity reactions in skin: understanding mechanisms and the development of diagnostic and predictive tests. Toxicology 2004; 194: 17996.
  • 18
    Naisbitt DJ, Pirmohamed M, Park BK. Immunopharmacology of hypersensitivity reactions to drugs. Curr Allergy Asthma Rep 2003; 3: 229.
  • 19
    Britschgi M, Steiner UC, Schmid S, Depta JP, Senti G, Bircher A, Burkhart C, Yawalkar N, Pichler WJ. T-cell involvement in drug-induced acute generalized exanthematous pustulosis. J Clin Invest 2001; 107: 143341.
  • 20
    Nassif A, Bensussan A, Dorothee G, Mami-Chouaib F, Bachot N, Bagot M, Boumsell L, Roujeau JC. Drug specific cytotoxic T-cells in the skin lesions of a patient with toxic epidermal necrolysis. J Invest Dermatol 2002; 118: 72833.
  • 21
    Hetherington S, McGuirk S, Powell G, Cutrell A, Naderer O, Spreen B, Lafon S, Pearce G, Steel H. Hypersensitivity reactions during therapy with the nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor abacavir. Clin Ther 2001; 23: 160314.
  • 22
    Naisbitt DJ, Britschgi M, Wong G, Farrell J, Depta JP, Chadwick DW, Pichler WJ, Pirmohamed M, Park BK. Hypersensitivity reactions to carbamazepine: characterization of the specificity, phenotype, and cytokine profile of drug-specific T cell clones. Mol Pharmacol 2003; 63: 73241.
  • 23
    Clay PG. The abacavir hypersensitivity reaction: a review. Clin Ther 2002; 24: 150214.
  • 24
    Rodriguez-Novoa S, Soriano V. Current trends in screening across ethnicities for hypersensitivity to abacavir. Pharmacogenomics 2008; 9: 153141.
  • 25
    Phillips EJ, Wong GA, Kaul R, Shahabi K, Nolan DA, Knowles SR, Martin AM, Mallal SA, Shear NH. Clinical and immunogenetic correlates of abacavir hypersensitivity. AIDS 2005; 19: 97981.
  • 26
    Mallal S, Nolan D, Witt C, Masel G, Martin AM, Moore C, Sayer D, Castley A, Mamotte C, Maxwell D, James I, Christiansen FT. Association between presence of HLA-B*5701, HLA-DR7, and HLA-DQ3 and hypersensitivity to HIV-1 reverse-transcriptase inhibitor abacavir. Lancet 2002; 359: 72732.
  • 27
    Martin AM, Nolan D, James I, Cameron P, Keller J, Moore C, Phillips E, Christiansen FT, Mallal S. Predisposition to nevirapine hypersensitivity associated with HLA-DRB1*0101 and abrogated by low CD4 T-cell counts. AIDS 2005; 19: 979.
  • 28
    Walsh JS, Reese MJ, Thurmond LM. The metabolic activation of abacavir by human liver cytosol and expressed human alcohol dehydrogenase isozymes. Chem Biol Interact 2002; 142: 13554.
  • 29
    Peyrieere H, Nicolas J, Siffert M, Demoly P, Hillaire-Buys D, Reynes J. Hypersensitivity related to abacavir in two members of a family. Ann Pharmacother 2001; 35: 12912.
  • 30
    Hetherington S, Hughes AR, Mosteller M, Shortino D, Baker KL, Spreen W, Lai E, Davies K, Handley A, Dow DJ, Fling ME, Stocum M, Bowman C, Thurmond LM, Roses AD. Genetic variations in HLA-B region and hypersensitivity reactions to abacavir. Lancet 2002; 359: 11212.
  • 31
    Hughes AR, Mosteller M, Bansal AT, Davies K, Haneline SA, Lai EH, Nangle K, Scott T, Spreen WR, Warren LL, Roses AD. Association of genetic variations in HLA-B region with hypersensitivity to abacavir in some, but not all, populations. Pharmacogenomics 2004; 5: 20311.
  • 32
    Hughes DA, Vilar FJ, Ward CC, Alfirevic A, Park BK, Pirmohamed M. Cost-effectiveness analysis of HLA B*5701 genotyping in preventing abacavir hypersensitivity. Pharmacogenetics 2004; 14: 33542.
  • 33
    Schackman BR, Scott CA, Walensky RP, Losina E, Freedberg KA, Sax PE. The cost-effectiveness of HLA-B*5701 genetic screening to guide initial antiretroviral therapy for HIV. AIDS 2008; 22: 202533.
  • 34
    Dervieux T, Bala MV. Overview of the pharmacoeconomics of pharmacogenetics. Pharmacogenomics 2006; 7: 117584.
  • 35
    Mallal S, Phillips E, Carosi G, Molina JM, Workman C, Tomazic J, Jagel-Guedes E, Rugina S, Kozyrev O, Cid JF, Hay P, Nolan D, Hughes S, Hughes A, Ryan S, Fitch N, Thorborn D, Benbow A. HLA-B*5701 screening for hypersensitivity to abacavir. N Engl J Med 2008; 358: 56879.
  • 36
    Rauch A, Nolan D, Martin A, McKinnon E, Almeida C, Mallal S. Prospective genetic screening decreases the incidence of abacavir hypersensitivity reactions in the Western Australian HIV cohort study. Clin Infect Dis 2006; 43: 99102.
  • 37
    Waters LJ, Mandalia S, Gazzard B, Nelson M. Prospective HLA-B*5701 screening and abacavir hypersensitivity: a single centre experience. AIDS 2007; 21: 25334.
  • 38
    Zucman D, Truchis P, Majerholc C, Stegman S, Caillat-Zucman S. Prospective screening for human leukocyte antigen-B*5701 avoids abacavir hypersensitivity reaction in the ethnically mixed French HIV population. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 2007; 45: 13.
  • 39
    Park WB, Choe PG, Song KH, Lee S, Jang HC, Jeon JH, Park SW, Park MH, Oh MD, Choe W. Should HLA-B*5701 screening be performed in every ethnic group before starting abacavir? Clin Infect Dis 2009; 48: 3657.
  • 40
    Symonds W, Cutrell A, Edwards M, Steel H, Spreen B, Powell G, McGuirk S, Hetherington S. Risk factor analysis of hypersensitivity reactions to abacavir. Clin Ther 2002; 24: 56573.
  • 41
    Saag M, Balu R, Phillips E, Brachman P, Martorell C, Burman W, Stancil B, Mosteller M, Brothers C, Wannamaker P, Hughes A, Sutherland-Phillips D, Mallal S, Shaefer M. High sensitivity of human leukocyte antigen-b*5701 as a marker for immunologically confirmed abacavir hypersensitivity in white and black patients. Clin Infect Dis 2008; 46: 11118.
  • 42
    Ripamonti D, Maggiolo F, Suter F. Possible allergic cross-reaction to didanosine and tenofovir in an HIV-1-infected woman. AIDS 2007; 21: 105960.
  • 43
    Carr A, Penny R, Cooper DA. Allergy and desensitization to zidovudine in patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). J Allergy Clin Immunol 1993; 91: 6835.
  • 44
    Saez-Llorens X, Violari A, Ndiweni D, Yogev R, Cashat M, Wiznia A, Chittick G, Harris J, Hinkle J, Blum R, Adda N, Rousseau F. Long-term safety and efficacy results of once-daily emtricitabine-based highly active antiretroviral therapy regimens in human immunodeficiency virus-infected pediatric subjects. Pediatrics 2008; 121: E82735.
  • 45
    Carr A, Cooper DA. Adverse effects of antiretroviral therapy. Lancet 2000; 356: 142330.
  • 46
    Sivadasan A, Abraham OC, Rupali P, Pulimood SA, Rajan J, Rajkumar S, Zachariah A, Kannangai R, Kandathip AJ, Sridharan G, Mathai D. High rates of regimen change due to drug toxicity among a cohort of South Indian adults with HIV infection initiated on generic, first-line antiretroviral treatment. J Assoc Physicians India 2009; 57: 3848.
  • 47
    Ananworanich J, Moor Z, Siangphoe U, Chan J, Cardiello P, Duncombe C, Phanuphak P, Ruxrungtham K, Lange J, Cooper DA. Incidence and risk factors for rash in Thai patients randomized to regimens with nevirapine, efavirenz or both drugs. AIDS 2005; 19: 18592.
  • 48
    Clotet B, Bellos N, Molina JM, Cooper D, Goffard JC, Lazzarin A, Wohrmann A, Katlama C, Wilkin T, Haubrich R, Cohen C, Farthing C, Jayaweera D, Markowitz M, Ruane P, Spinosa-Guzman S, Lefebvre E. Efficacy and safety of darunavir-ritonavir at week 48 in treatment-experienced patients with HIV-1 infection in POWER 1 and 2: a pooled subgroup analysis of data from two randomised trials. Lancet 2007; 369: 116978.
  • 49
    Warren KJ, Boxwell DE, Kim NY, Drolet BA. Nevirapine-associated Stevens-Johnson syndrome. Lancet 1998; 351: 567.
  • 50
    Claudio GA, Martin AF, de Dios Perrino S, Velasco AA. DRESS syndrome associated with nevirapine therapy. Arch Intern Med 2001; 161: 25012.
  • 51
    Martin-Carbonero L, Nunez M, Gonzalez-Lahoz J, Soriano V. Incidence of liver injury after beginning antiretroviral therapy with efavirenz or nevirapine. HIV Clin Trials 2003; 4: 11520.
  • 52
    Drummond NS, Vilar FJ, Naisbitt DJ, Hanson A, Woods A, Park BK, Pirmohamed M. Drug-specific T cells in an HIV-positive patient with nevirapine-induced hepatitis. Antivir Ther 2006; 11: 3935.
  • 53
    Pulido F, Torralba M. NNRTI hepatotoxicity: efavirenz versus nevirapine. J HIV Ther 2002; 7: (Suppl. 2): S316.
  • 54
    Bruck S, Witte S, Brust J, Schuster D, Mosthaf F, Procaccianti M, Rump JA, Klinker H, Petzold D, Hartmann M. Hepatotoxicity in patients prescribed efavirenz or nevirapine. Eur J Med Res 2008; 13: 3438.
  • 55
    Sanne I, Mommeja-Marin H, Hinkle J, Bartlett JA, Lederman MM, Maartens G, Wakeford C, Shaw A, Quinn J, Gish RG, Rousseau F. Severe hepatotoxicity associated with nevirapine use in HIV-infected subjects. J Infect Dis 2005; 191: 8259.
  • 56
    Dieterich DT, Robinson PA, Love J, Stern JO. Drug-induced liver injury associated with the use of nonnucleoside reverse-transcriptase inhibitors. Clin Infect Dis 2004; 38: (Suppl. 2): S809.
  • 57
    Stern JO, Robinson PA, Love J, Lanes S, Imperiale MS, Mayers DL. A comprehensive hepatic safety analysis of nevirapine in different populations of HIV infected patients. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 2003; 34: (Suppl. 1): S2133.
  • 58
    Chen X, Tharmanathan T, Mannargudi B, Gou H, Uetrecht JP. A study of the specificity of lymphocytes in nevirapine-induced skin rash. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 2009; 331: 83641.
  • 59
    Chantarangsu S, Mushiroda T, Mahasirimongkol S, Kiertiburanakul S, Sungkanuparph S, Manosuthi W, Tantisiriwat W, Charoenyingwattana A, Sura T, Chantratita W, Nakamura Y. HLA-B*3505 allele is a strong predictor for nevirapine-induced skin adverse drug reactions in HIV-infected Thai patients. Pharmacogenet Genomics 2009; 19: 13946.
  • 60
    Rotger M, Colombo S, Furrer H, Bleiber G, Buclin T, Lee BL, Keiser O, Biollaz J, Decosterd L, Telenti A. Influence of CYP2B6 polymorphism on plasma and intracellular concentrations and toxicity of efavirenz and nevirapine in HIV-infected patients. Pharmacogenet Genomics 2005; 15: 15.
  • 61
    Ciccacci C, Borgiani P, Ceffa S, Sirianni E, Marazzi MC, Altan AM, Paturzo G, Bramanti P, Novelli G, Palombi L. Nevirapine-induced hepatotoxicity and pharmacogenetics: a retrospective study in a population from Mozambique. Pharmacogenomics 2010; 11: 2331.
  • 62
    Haas DW, Bartlett JA, Andersen JW, Sanne I, Wilkinson GR, Hinkle J, Rousseau F, Ingram CD, Shaw A, Lederman MM, Kim RB. Pharmacogenetics of nevirapine-associated hepatotoxicity: an Adult AIDS Clinical Trials Group collaboration. Clin Infect Dis 2006; 43: 7836.
  • 63
    Ritchie MD, Haas DW, Motsinger AA, Donahue JP, Erdem H, Raffanti S, Rebeiro P, George AL, Kim RB, Haines JL, Sterling TR. Drug transporter and metabolizing enzyme gene variants and nonnucleoside reverse-transcriptase inhibitor hepatotoxicity. Clin Infect Dis 2006; 43: 77982.
  • 64
    Penzak SR, Kabuye G, Mugyenyi P, Mbamanya F, Natarajan V, Alfaro RM, Kityo C, Formentini E, Masur H. Cytochrome P450 2B6 (CYP2B6) G516T influences nevirapine plasma concentrations in HIV-infected patients in Uganda. HIV Med 2007; 8: 8691.
  • 65
    Kappelhoff BS, van Leth F, Robinson PA, MacGregor TR, Baraldi E, Montella F, Uip DE, Thompson MA, Russell DB, Lange JM, Beijnen JH, Huitema AD. Are adverse events of nevirapine and efavirenz related to plasma concentrations? Antivir Ther 2005; 10: 48998.
  • 66
    Mahungu T, Smith C, Turner F, Egan D, Youle M, Johnson M, Khoo S, Back D, Owen A. Cytochrome P450 2B6 516G – >T is associated with plasma concentrations of nevirapine at both 200 mg twice daily and 400 mg once daily in an ethnically diverse population. HIV Med 2009; 10: 3107.
  • 67
    Meynard JL, Lacombe K, Poirier JM, Legrand J, Morand-Joubert L, Girard PM. Influence of liver fibrosis stage on plasma levels of efavirenz in HIV-infected patients with chronic hepatitis B or C. J Antimicrob Chemother 2009; 63: 57984.
  • 68
    Calmy A, Hirschel B, Cooper DA, Carr A. Clinical update: adverse effects of antiretroviral therapy. Lancet 2007; 370: 124.
  • 69
    Nunez M. Hepatotoxicity of antiretrovirals: incidence, mechanisms and management. J Hepatol 2006; 44 (1 Suppl.):S1329.
  • 70
    Bossi P, Colin D, Bricaire F, Caumes E. Hypersensitivity syndrome associated with efavirenz therapy. Clin Infect Dis 2000; 30: 2278.
  • 71
    Schiller DS, Youssef-Bessler M. Etravirine: a second-generation nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI) active against NNRTI-resistant strains of HIV. Clin Ther 2009; 31: 692704.
  • 72
    Katlama C, Haubrich R, Lalezari J, Lazzarin A, Madruga JV, Molina JM, Schechter M, Peeters M, Picchio G, Vingerhoets J, Woodfall B, De Smedt G. Efficacy and safety of etravirine in treatment-experienced, HIV-1 patients: pooled 48 week analysis of two randomized, controlled trials. AIDS 2009; 23: 2289300.
  • 73
    Carter M. Warning issued about rare etravirine allergic reactions AIDSMAP. October 21, 2009.
  • 74
    Pozniak AL, Morales-Ramirez J, Katabira E, Steyn D, Lupo SH, Santoscoy M, Grinsztejn B, Ruxrungtham K, Rimsky LT, Vanveggel S, Boven K. Efficacy and safety of TMC278 in antiretroviral-naive HIV-1 patients: week 96 results of a phase IIb randomized trial. AIDS 2010; 24: 5565.
  • 75
    Ouagari Z, Tubiana R, Mohand HA, Dominguez S, Duvivier C, Bricaire F, Katlama C, Caumes E. Skin rash associated with atazanavir: report of three cases. AIDS 2006; 20: 12078.
  • 76
    Herzmann C, Kinloch S, Johnson M. Rash in an HIV-positive patient. HIV Med 2005; 6: 379.
  • 77
    Corbett AH, Lim ML, Kashuba AD. Kaletra (lopinavir/ritonavir). Ann Pharmacother 2002; 36: 1193203.
  • 78
    Chapman TM, Plosker GL, Perry CM. Fosamprenavir: a review of its use in the management of antiretroviral therapy-naive patients with HIV infection. Drugs 2004; 64: 210124.
  • 79
    Gathe JC Jr, Ive P, Wood R, Schurmann D, Bellos NC, DeJesus E, Gladysz A, Garris C, Yeo J. SOLO: 48-week efficacy and safety comparison of once-daily fosamprenavir/ritonavir versus twice-daily nelfinavir in naive HIV-1-infected patients. AIDS 2004; 18: 152937.
  • 80
    Phillips EJ, Knowles SR. Comment: sulfonamide cross-reactivity: fact or fiction? Ann Pharmacother 2005; 39: 13723; author reply 3.
  • 81
    Arasteh K, Yeni P, Pozniak A, Grinsztejn B, Jayaweera D, Roberts A, Hoy J, De Meyer S, Vangeneugden T, Tomaka F. Efficacy and safety of darunavir/ritonavir in treatment-experienced HIV type-1 patients in the POWER 1, 2 and 3 trials at week 96. Antivir Ther 2009; 14: 85964.
  • 82
    Marcos Bravo MC, Ocampo Hermida A, Martinez Vilela J, Perez Rodriguez MT, Gavilan Montenegro MJ, Arenas Villarroel LJ, Miralles Alvarez C, Rodriguez Dasilva A, Martinez Vazquez C. Hypersensitivity reaction to darunavir and desensitization protocol. J Investig Allergol Clin Immunol 2009; 19: 2501.
  • 83
    Soriano V, Puoti M, Garcia-Gasco P, Rockstroh JK, Benhamou Y, Barreiro P, McGovern B. Antiretroviral drugs and liver injury. AIDS 2008; 22: 113.
  • 84
    Molina JM, Cohen C, Katlama C, Grinsztejn B, Timerman A, Pedro Rde J, Vangeneugden T, Miralles D, Meyer SD, Parys W, Lefebvre E. Safety and efficacy of darunavir (TMC114) with low-dose ritonavir in treatment-experienced patients: 24-week results of POWER 3. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 2007; 46: 2431.
  • 85
    Gathe J, Cooper DA, Farthing C, Jayaweera D, Norris D, Pierone G Jr., Steinhart CR, Trottier B, Walmsley SL, Workman C, Mukwaya G, Kohlbrenner V, Dohnanyi C, McCallister S, Mayers D. Efficacy of the protease inhibitors tipranavir plus ritonavir in treatment-experienced patients: 24-week analysis from the RESIST-1 trial. Clin Infect Dis 2006; 43: 133746.
  • 86
    Macias J, Orihuela F, Rivero A, Viciana P, Marquez M, Portilla J, Rios MJ, Munoz L, Pasquau J, Castano MA, Abdel-Kader L, Pineda JA. Hepatic safety of tipranavir plus ritonavir (TPV/r)-based antiretroviral combinations: effect of hepatitis virus co-infection and pre-existing fibrosis. J Antimicrob Chemother 2009; 63: 17883.
  • 87
    Salazar JC, Cahn P, Yogev R, Negra MD, Castelli-Gattinara G, Fortuny C, Flynn PM, Giaquinto C, Ruan PK, Smith ME, Mikl J, Jelaska A. Efficacy, safety and tolerability of tipranavir coadministered with ritonavir in HIV-1-infected children and adolescents. AIDS 2008; 22: 178998.
  • 88
    Shahar E, Moar C, Pollack S. Successful desensitization of enfuvirtide-induced skin hypersensitivity reaction. AIDS 2005; 19: 4512.
  • 89
    Abel S, van der Ryst E, Rosario MC, Ridgway CE, Medhurst CG, Taylor-Worth RJ, Muirhead GJ. Assessment of the pharmacokinetics, safety and tolerability of maraviroc, a novel CCR5 antagonist, in healthy volunteers. Br J Clin Pharmacol 2008; 65: (Suppl. 1): 518.
  • 90
    Abel S, Davis JD, Ridgway CE, Hamlin JC, Vourvahis M. Pharmacokinetics, safety and tolerability of a single oral dose of maraviroc in HIV-negative subjects with mild and moderate hepatic impairment. Antivir Ther 2009; 14: 8317.
  • 91
    Dubois EA, Cohen AF. Maraviroc and raltegravir. Br J Clin Pharmacol 2009; 68: 6512.
  • 92
    Nichols WG, Steel HM, Bonny T, Adkison K, Curtis L, Millard J, Kabeya K, Clumeck N. Hepatotoxicity observed in clinical trials of aplaviroc (GW873140). Antimicrob Agents Chemother 2008; 52: 85865.
  • 93
    Borras-Blasco J, Navarro-Ruiz A, Borras C, Castera E. Adverse cutaneous reactions associated with the newest antiretroviral drugs in patients with human immunodeficiency virus infection. J Antimicrob Chemother 2008; 62: 87988.
  • 94
    Schafer JJ, Squires KE. Integrase inhibitors: a novel class of antiretroviral agents. Ann Pharmacother 2010; 44: 14556.
  • 95
    Alfirevic A, Vilar FJ, Alsbou M, Jawaid A, Thomson W, Ollier WE, Bowman CE, Delrieu O, Park BK, Pirmohamed M. TNF, LTA, HSPA1L and HLA-DR gene polymorphisms in HIV-positive patients with hypersensitivity to cotrimoxazole. Pharmacogenomics 2009; 10: 53140.
  • 96
    Lin D, Li WK, Rieder MJ. Cotrimoxazole for prophylaxis or treatment of opportunistic infections of HIV/AIDS in patients with previous history of hypersensitivity to cotrimoxazole. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2007; (2): CD005646.
  • 97
    Hennessy S, Strom BL, Berlin JA, Brennan PJ. Predicting cutaneous hypersensitivity reactions to cotrimoxazole in HIV-infected individuals receiving primary Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia prophylaxis. J Gen Intern Med 1995; 10: 3806.
  • 98
    Alfirevic A, Stalford AC, Vilar FJ, Wilkins EG, Park BK, Pirmohamed M. Slow acetylator phenotype and genotype in HIV-positive patients with sulphamethoxazole hypersensitivity. Br J Clin Pharmacol 2003; 55: 15865.
  • 99
    Rabaud C, Charreau I, Izard S, Raffi F, Meiffredy V, Leport C, Guillemin F, Yeni P, Aboulker JP, Delta trial group. Adverse reactions to cotrimoxazole in HIV-infected patients: predictive factors and subsequent HIV disease progression. Scand J Infect Dis 2001; 33: 75964.
  • 100
    Carr A, Swanson C, Penny R, Cooper DA. Clinical and laboratory markers of hypersensitivity to trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole in patients with Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia and AIDS. J Infect Dis 1993; 167: 1805.
  • 101
    Reilly TP, Ju C. Mechanistic perspectives on sulfonamide-induced cutaneous drug reactions. Curr Opin Allergy Clin Immunol 2002; 2: 30715.
  • 102
    Naisbitt DJ, Farrell J, Gordon SF, Maggs JL, Burkhart C, Pichler WJ, Pirmohamed M, Park BK. Covalent binding of the nitroso metabolite of sulfamethoxazole leads to toxicity and major histocompatibility complex-restricted antigen presentation. Mol Pharmacol 2002; 62: 62837.
  • 103
    Naisbitt DJ, Vilar FJ, Stalford AC, Wilkins EG, Pirmohamed M, Park BK. Plasma cysteine deficiency and decreased reduction of nitrososulfamethoxazole with HIV infection. AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses 2000; 16: 192938.
  • 104
    Sanderson JP, Naisbitt DJ, Farrell J, Ashby CA, Tucker MJ, Rieder MJ, Pirmohamed M, Clarke SE, Park BK. Sulfamethoxazole and its metabolite nitroso sulfamethoxazole stimulate dendritic cell costimulatory signaling. J Immunol 2007; 178: 553342.
  • 105
    Murphy RL. Defining the toxicity profile of nevirapine and other antiretroviral drugs. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 2003; 34: (Suppl. 1): S1520.
  • 106
    Zolopa AR. The evolution of HIV treatment guidelines: current state-of-the-art of ART. Antiviral Res 2010; 85: 2414.
  • 107
    Carr A, Cooper DA. Pathogenesis and management of HIV-associated drug hypersensitivity. AIDS Clin Rev 1995; 6597.
  • 108
    Davis CM, Shearer WT. Diagnosis and management of HIV drug hypersensitivity. J Allergy Clin Immunol 2008; 121: 826832 e825.
  • 109
    Walmsley S, Levinton C, Brunton J, Muradali D, Rappaport D, Bast M, Spence D, Salit I. A multicenter randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial of adjunctive corticosteroids in the treatment of Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia complicating the acquired immune deficiency syndrome. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr Hum Retrovirol 1995; 8: 34857.
  • 110
    Wit FW, Wood R, Horban A, Beniowski M, Schmidt RE, Gray G, Lazzarin A, Lafeuillade A, Paes D, Carlier H, van Weert L, de Vries C, van Leeuwen R, Lange JM. Prednisolone does not prevent hypersensitivity reactions in antiretroviral drug regimens containing abacavir with or without nevirapine. AIDS 2001; 15: 24239.
  • 111
    Montaner JS, Cahn P, Zala C, Casssetti LI, Losso M, Hall DB, Wruck J, McDonough M, Gigliotti M, Robinson PA. Randomized, controlled study of the effects of a short course of prednisone on the incidence of rash associated with nevirapine in patients infected with HIV-1. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 2003; 33: 416.
  • 112
    Barreiro P, Soriano V, Casas E, Estrada V, Tellez MJ, Hoetelmans R, de Requena DG, Jimenez-Nacher I, Gonzalez-Lahoz J. Prevention of nevirapine-associated exanthema using slow dose escalation and/or corticosteroids. AIDS 2000; 14: 21537.
  • 113
    Phan TG, Wong RC, Crotty K, Adelstein S. Toxic epidermal necrolysis in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome treated with intravenous gammaglobulin. Australas J Dermatol 1999; 40: 1537.
  • 114
    Fields KS, Petersen MJ, Chiao E, Tristani-Firouzi P. Case reports: treatment of nevirapine-associated dress syndrome with intravenous immune globulin (IVIG). J Drugs Dermatol 2005; 4: 5103.
  • 115
    Walmsley SL, Khorasheh S, Singer J, Djurdjev O. A randomized trial of N-acetylcysteine for prevention of trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole hypersensitivity reactions in Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia prophylaxis (CTN 057). Canadian HIV Trials Network 057 Study Group. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr Hum Retrovirol 1998; 19: 498505.
  • 116
    Akerlund B, Tynell E, Bratt G, Bielenstein M, Lidman C. N-acetylcysteine treatment and the risk of toxic reactions to trimethoprim-sulphamethoxazole in primary Pneumocystis carinii prophylaxis in HIV-infected patients. J Infect 1997; 35: 1437.
  • 117
    Hughes S, Hughes A, Brothers C, Spreen W, Thorborn D. PREDICT-1 (CNA106030): the first powered, prospective trial of pharmacogenetic screening to reduce drug adverse events. Pharm Stat 2008; 7: 1219.
  • 118
    Phillips EJ, Sullivan JR, Knowles SR, Shear NH. Utility of patch testing in patients with hypersensitivity syndromes associated with abacavir. AIDS 2002; 16: 22235.
  • 119
    Roujeau JC, Albengres E, Moritz S, Piacentino A, Cuny M, Revuz J, Touraine R. Lymphocyte transformation test in drug-induced toxic epidermal necrolysis. Int Arch Allergy Appl Immunol 1985; 78: 224.
  • 120
    Escaut L, Liotier JY, Albengres E, Cheminot N, Vittecoq D. Abacavir rechallenge has to be avoided in case of hypersensitivity reaction. AIDS 1999; 13: 141920.
  • 121
    Shear NH, Milpied B, Bruynzeel DP, Phillips EJ. A review of drug patch testing and implications for HIV clinicians. AIDS 2008; 22: 9991007.
  • 122
    Calza L, Rosseti N, Biagetti C, Pocaterra D, Colangeli V, Manfredi R. Abacavir-induced reaction with fever and severe skin rash in a patient tested human leukocyte antigen-B*5701 negative. Int J STD AIDS 2009; 20: 2767.
  • 123
    Bonta PI, Vermeulen LN, Speelman P, Prins JM. Severe abacavir hypersensitivity reaction in a patient tested HLA-B*5701 negative. AIDS 2008; 22: 15223.
  • 124
    Martinez Castro B, Ferrando Piqueres R, Martinez Garcia M, Soler Company E. [Desensitization to tipranavir caused by toxicodermia]. Farm Hosp 2009; 33: 3402.
  • 125
    Kohli-Pamnani A, Huynh P, Lobo F. Amprenavir-induced maculopapular exanthem followed by desensitization in a patient with late-stage human immunodeficiency virus. Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol 2006; 96: 6203.
  • 126
    Bravo MCM, Hermida AO, Vilela JM, Rodriguez MTP, Montenegro MJG, Villarroel LJA, Alvarez CM, Dasilva AR, Vazquez CM. Hypersensitivity reaction to darunavir and desensitization protocol. J Invest Allerg Clin 2009; 19: 2501.
  • 127
    Phillips E, Gutierrez S, Jahnke N, Yip B, Lima VD, Hogg RS, Harrigan PR, Montaner JS. Determinants of nevirapine hypersensitivity and its effect on the association between hepatitis C status and mortality in antiretroviral drug-naive HIV-positive patients. AIDS 2007; 21: 15618.
  • 128
    Demoly P, Messaad D, Fabre J, Reynes J, Bousquet J. Nevirapine-induced cutaneous hypersensitivity reactions and successful tolerance induction. J Allergy Clin Immunol 1999; 104 (2 Pt 1): 5045.
  • 129
    Mehta U, Maartens G. Is it safe to switch between efavirenz and nevirapine in the event of toxicity? Lancet Infect Dis 2007; 7: 7338.
  • 130
    Laureillard D, Prak N, Fernandez M, Ngeth C, Moeung S, Riel V, Chhneang V, Song S, Quillet C, Piketty C. Efavirenz replacement by immediate full-dose nevirapine is safe in HIV-1-infected patients in Cambodia. HIV Med 2008; 9: 5148.
  • 131
    Manosuthi W, Thongyen S, Chumpathat N, Muangchana K, Sungkanuparph S. Incidence and risk factors of rash associated with efavirenz in HIV-infected patients with preceding nevirapine-associated rash. HIV Med 2006; 7: 37882.
  • 132
    Gangar M, Arias G, O'Brien JG, Kemper CA. Frequency of cutaneous reactions on rechallenge with nevirapine and delavirdine. Ann Pharmacother 2000; 34: 83942.
  • 133
    Nolan D. HLA-B*5701 screening prior to abacavir prescription: clinical and laboratory aspects. Crit Rev Clin Lab Sci 2009; 46: 15365.
  • 134
    Saag MS, Cahn P, Raffi F, Wolff M, Pearce D, Molina JM, Powderly W, Shaw AL, Mondou E, Hinkle J, Borroto-Esoda K, Quinn JB, Barry DW, Rousseau F. Efficacy and safety of emtricitabine vs stavudine in combination therapy in antiretroviral-naive patients: a randomized trial. JAMA 2004; 292: 1809.
  • 135
    Colebunders R, Vanwolleghem T, Meurrens P, Moerman F. Efavirenz-associated Stevens-Johnson syndrome. Infection 2004; 32: 3067.
  • 136
    Lazzarin A, Campbell T, Clotet B, Johnson M, Katlama C, Moll A, Towner W, Trottier B, Peeters M, Vingerhoets J, de Smedt G, Baeten B, Beets G, Sinha R, Woodfall B. Efficacy and safety of TMC125 (etravirine) in treatment-experienced HIV-1-infected patients in DUET-2: 24-week results from a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Lancet 2007; 370: 3948.
  • 137
    Squires K, Lazzarin A, Gatell JM, Powderly WG, Pokrovskiy V, Delfraissy JF, Jemsek J, Rivero A, Rozenbaum W, Schrader S, Sension M, Vibhagool A, Thiry A, Giordano M. Comparison of once-daily atazanavir with efavirenz, each in combination with fixed-dose zidovudine and lamivudine, as initial therapy for patients infected with HIV. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 2004; 36: 10119.
  • 138
    Madruga JV, Berger D, McMurchie M, Suter F, Banhegyi D, Ruxrungtham K, Norris D, Lefebvre E, de Bethune MP, Tomaka F, De Pauw M, Vangeneugden T, Spinosa-Guzman S. Efficacy and safety of darunavir-ritonavir compared with that of lopinavir-ritonavir at 48 weeks in treatment-experienced, HIV-infected patients in TITAN: a randomised controlled phase III trial. Lancet 2007; 370: 4958.
  • 139
    Gulick RM, Lalezari J, Goodrich J, Clumeck N, DeJesus E, Horban A, Nadler J, Clotet B, Karlsson A, Wohlfeiler M, Montana JB, McHale M, Sullivan J, Ridgway C, Felstead S, Dunne MW, van der Ryst E, Mayer H. Maraviroc for previously treated patients with R5 HIV-1 infection. N Engl J Med 2008; 359: 142941.
  • 140
    Gatanaga H, Yazaki H, Tanuma J, Honda M, Genka I, Teruya K, Tachikawa N, Kikuchi Y, Oka S. HLA-Cw8 primarily associated with hypersensitivity to nevirapine. AIDS 2007; 21: 2645.
  • 141
    Littera R, Carcassi C, Masala A, Piano P, Serra P, Ortu F, Corso N, Casula B, La Nasa G, Contu L, Manconi PE. HLA-dependent hypersensitivity to nevirapine in Sardinian HIV patients. AIDS 2006; 20: 16216.
  • 142
    Vitezica ZG, Milpied B, Lonjou C, Borot N, Ledger TN, Lefebvre A, Hovnanian A. HLA-DRB1*01 associated with cutaneous hypersensitivity induced by nevirapine and efavirenz. AIDS 2008; 22: 5401.