SEARCH

SEARCH BY CITATION

REFERENCES

  • 1
    Klepstad P, Kaasa S, Cherny N, Hanks G, de Conno F, Research Steering Committee of the EAPC. Pain and pain treatments in European palliative care units. A cross sectional survey from the European Association for Palliative Care Research Network. Palliat Med 2005; 19: 47784.
  • 2
    Robertson JR, Raab GM, Bruce M, McKenzie JS, Storkey HR, Salter A. Addressing the efficacy of dihydrocodeine versus methadone as an alternative maintenance treatment for opiate dependence: a randomized controlled trial. Addiction 2006; 101: 17529.
  • 3
    Strang J, Bridge J, Day E, Farrell M, Gerada C, Gilvarry E, Harris L, Howard J, Keen J, Kidd B, Myles J, Oretti R, Raistrick D, Robertson R, Steventon N, Walker H, Wardle I, Wright N, Zador D. Drug Misuse and Dependence – UK Guidelines on Clinical Management. London: Department of Health (England), the Scottish Government, Welsh Assembly Government and Northern Ireland Executive, 2007 Available at http://www.nta.nhs.uk/uploads/clinical_guidelines_2007.pdf (last accessed 22 May 2010).
  • 4
    Krausz M, Degkwitz P, Wernecke A, Verthein U, Chorzelski G, Behrendt K. Drug substitution treatment of heroin dependent patients with codeine preparations – treatment effects from the viewpoint of the physicians and patients. Psychiatr Prax 1995; 22: 17985.
  • 5
    Elias H. Substitute drug-assisted treatment of drug dependent patients in general practice. Fortschr Med 1990; 108: 2568.
  • 6
    Banbery J, Wolff K, Raistrick D. Dihydrocodeine: a useful tool in the detoxification of methadone-maintained patients. J Subst Abuse Treat 2000; 19: 3015.
  • 7
    Sheard L, Wright NM, El-Sayeh HG, Adams CE, Li R, Tompkins CN. The Leeds Evaluation of Efficacy of Detoxification Study (LEEDS) prisons project: a randomised controlled trial comparing dihydrocodeine and buprenorphine for opiate detoxification. Subst Abuse Treat Prev Policy 2009; 4: 1.
  • 8
    Wright NM, Sheard L, Tompkins CN, Adams CE, Allgar VL, Oldham NS. Buprenorphine versus dihydrocodeine for opiate detoxification in primary care: a randomised controlled trial. BMC Fam Pract 2007; 8: 3.
  • 9
    Backmund M, Meyer K, Eichenlaub D, Schutz CG. Predictors for completing an inpatient detoxification program among intravenous heroin users, methadone substituted and codeine substituted patients. Drug Alcohol Depend 2001; 64: 17380.
  • 10
    Strang J, Sheridan J, Hunt C, Kerr B, Gerada C, Pringle M. The prescribing of methadone and other opioids to addicts: national survey of GPs in England and Wales. Br J Gen Pract 2005; 55: 44451.
  • 11
    Matheson C, Bond CM, Hickey F. Prescribing and dispensing for drug misusers in primary care: current practice in Scotland. Fam Pract 1999; 16: 3759.
  • 12
    Pearson R, Robertson G, Gibb R. The identification and treatment of opiate users in police custody. Med Sci Law 2000; 40: 30512.
  • 13
    Seymour A, Black M, Jay J, Oliver JS. The role of dihydrocodeine in causing death among drug users in the west of Scotland. Scott Med J 2001; 46: 1436.
  • 14
    Penning R, Fromm E, Betz P, Kauert G, Drasch G, von Meyer L. Drug death autopsies at the Munich Institute of Forensic Medicine (1981–1992). Forensic Sci Int 1993; 62: 1359.
  • 15
    Friessem DH, Taschner KL. Codeine and dihydrocodeine as substitute and alternative drugs. Fortschr Neurol Psychiatr 1991; 59: 1649.
  • 16
    Swadi H, Wells B, Power R. Misuse of dihydrocodeine tartrate (DF 118) among opiate addicts. Br Med J 1990; 300: 1313.
  • 17
    Ulmer A. Dihydrocodeine in substance dependence. Fortschr Med 1990; 108: 261.
  • 18
    Cicero TJ, Inciardi JA, Munoz A. Trends in abuse of Oxycontin and other opioid analgesics in the United States: 2002–2004. J Pain 2005; 6: 66272.
  • 19
    Cicero TJ, Dart RC, Inciardi JA, Woody GE, Schnoll S, Munoz A. The development of a comprehensive risk-management program for prescription opioid analgesics: Researched Abuse, Diversion and Addiction-Related Surveillance (RADARS-R). Pain Med 2007; 8: 15770.
  • 20
    Hickman M, Carrivick S, Paterson S, Hunt N, Zador D, Cusick L, Henry J. London audit of drug-related overdose deaths: characteristics and typology, and implications for prevention and monitoring. Addiction 2007; 102: 31723.
  • 21
    Reith D, Fountain J, Tilyard M. Opioid poisoning deaths in New Zealand (2001–2002). NZ Med J 2005; 118: 1293.
  • 22
    Schifano F, Zamparutti G, Zambello F, Oyefeso A, Deluca P, Balestrieri M, Little D, Ghodse AH. Review of deaths related to analgesics and cough suppressant-opioids; England and Wales 1996–2002. Pharmacopsychiatry 2006; 39: 18591.
  • 23
    Strang J, Manning V, Mayet S, Ridge G, Best D, Sheridan J. Does prescribing for opiate addiction change after national guidelines? Methadone and buprenorphine prescribing to opiate addicts by general practitioners and hospital doctors in England, 1995–2005. Addiction 2007; 102: 76170.
  • 24
    Ghodse H, Corkery J, Oyefeso A, Schifano F, Ahmed K, Naidoo V. Drug-related deaths in the UK: Annual Report 2009. Drug-related deaths reported by Coroners in England, Wales, Northern Ireland, Guernsey, Jersey and the Isle of Man; Police forces in Scotland; & the Northern Ireland Statistics and Research Agency – Annual Report January – December 2008. London: International Centre for Drug Policy, St George's University of London. September 2009. Available at http://www.sgul.ac.uk/research/projects/icdp/pdf/np-SAD%2011th%20annual%20report%20Final.pdf (last accessed on 22 May 2010).
  • 25
    Nakamura GR. Toxicologic assessments in acute heroin fatalities. Clin Toxicol 1978; 13: 7587.
  • 26
    Darke S, Ross J. The relationship between suicide and heroin overdose among methadone maintenance patients in Sydney, Australia. Addiction 2001; 96: 144353.
  • 27
    Shields LB, Hunsaker DM, Hunsaker JC 3rd, Ward MK. Toxicologic findings in suicide: a 10-year retrospective review of Kentucky medical examiner cases. Am J Forensic Med Pathol 2006; 27: 10612.
  • 28
    March JC, Oviedo-Joekes E, Romero M. Drugs and social exclusion in ten European cities. Eur Addict Res 2006; 12: 3341.
  • 29
    Crawford MJ, Kuforiji B, Ghosh P. The impact of social context on socio-demographic risk factors for suicide: a synthesis of data from case-control studies. J Epidemiol Community Health 2010; 64: 5304.
  • 30
    Bakken K, Vaglum P. Predictors of suicide attempters in substance-dependent patients: a six-year prospective follow-up. Clin Pract Epidemiol Ment Health 2007; 3: 20.
  • 31
    Trémeau F, Darreye A, Staner L, Corrêa H, Weibel H, Khidichian F, Macher JP. Suicidality in opioid-dependent subjects. Am J Addict 2008; 17: 18794.
  • 32
    Darke S, Ross J, Lynskey M, Teesson M. Attempted suicide among entrants to three treatment modalities for heroin dependence in the Australian Treatment Outcome Study (ATOS): prevalence and risk factors. Drug Alcohol Depend 2004; 73: 110.
  • 33
    Britton PC, Conner KR. Suicide attempts within 12 months of treatment for substance use disorders. Suicide Life Threat Behav 2010; 40: 1421.
  • 34
    Phillips J, Carpenter KM, Nunes EV. Suicide risk in depressed methadone-maintained patients: associations with clinical and demographic characteristics. Am J Addict 2004; 13: 32732.
  • 35
    Schneider B. Substance use disorders and risk for completed suicide. Arch Suicide Res 2009; 13: 30316.
  • 36
    Rajaratnam R, Sivesind D, Todman M, Roane D, Seewald R. The aging methadone maintenance patient: treatment adjustment, long-term success, and quality of life. J Opioid Manag 2009; 5: 2737.
  • 37
    Ratcliffe GE, Enns MW, Belik SL, Sareen J. Chronic pain conditions and suicidal ideation and suicide attempts: an epidemiologic perspective. Clin J Pain 2008; 24: 20410.
  • 38
    Ilgen MA, Zivin K, McCammon RJ, Valenstein M. Pain and suicidal thoughts, plans and attempts in the United States. Gen Hosp Psychiatry 2008; 30: 5217.
  • 39
    Neeleman J, Wessely S. Drugs taken in fatal and non-fatal self-poisoning: a study in south London. Acta Psychiatr Scand 1997; 95: 2837.
  • 40
    Staikowsky F, Theil F, Candella S. Trends in the pharmaceutical profile of intentional drug overdoses seen in the emergency room. Presse Med 2005; 34: 8426.
  • 41
    Hawton K, Fagg J, Simkin S, Mills J. The epidemiology of attempted suicide in the Oxford area, England (1989–1992). Crisis 1994; 15: 12335.
  • 42
    Hawton K, Bergen H, Simkin S, Brock A, Griffiths C, Romeri E, Smith KL, Kapur N, Gunnell D. Effect of withdrawal of Co-proxamol on prescribing and deaths from drug poisoning in England and Wales: time series analysis. BMJ 2009; 338: b2270.
  • 43
    Coffin PO, Galea S, Ahern J, Leon AC, Vlahov D, Tardiff K. Opiates, cocaine and alcohol combinations in accidental drug overdose deaths in New York City, 1990–98. Addiction 2003; 98: 73947.
  • 44
    Strang J, Farrell M, Meadows G. Misuse of dihydrocodeine tartate (DF 118) among opiate addicts. BMJ 1990; 301: 119.
  • 45
    Degenhardt L, Black E, Breen C, Bruno R, Kinner S, Roxburgh A, Fry C, Jenkinson R, Ward J, Fetherston J, Weekley J, Fischer J. Trends in morphine prescriptions, illicit morphine use and associated harms among regular injecting drug users in Australia. Drug Alcohol Rev 2006; 25: 40312.
  • 46
    Faggiano F, Vigna-Taglianti F, Versino E, Lemma P. Methadone maintenance at different dosages for opioid dependence. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2003; (3): CD002208.
  • 47
    Van den Brink W, Hasen C. Evidence-based treatment of opioid dependent patients. Can J Psychiatry 2006; 51: 63546.
  • 48
    Wittchen HU, Apelt SM, Soyka M, Gastpar M, Backmund M, Golz J, Kraus MR, Tretter F, Schafer M, Siegert J, Scherbaum N, Rehm J, Buhringer G. Feasibility and outcome of substitution treatment of heroin-dependent patients in specialized substitution centres and primary care facilities in Germany: a naturalistic study in 2694 patients. Drug Alcohol Depend 2008; 95: 24557.
  • 49
    Hall WD, Mattick RP. Clinical update: codeine maintenance in opioid dependence. Lancet 2007; 370: 5502.
  • 50
    Schifano F, Corkery J, Gilvarry E, Deluca P, Oyefeso A, Ghodse AH. Buprenorphine mortality, seizures and prescription data in the UK, 1980–2002. Hum Psychopharmacol 2005; 20: 3438.
  • 51
    Gossop M, Marsden J, Stewart D. Remission of psychiatric symptoms among drug misusers after drug dependence treatment. J Nerv Ment Dis 2006; 194: 82632.
  • 52
    Gowing L, Ali R, White J. Buprenorphine for the management of opioid withdrawal. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2000; (3): CD002025.
  • 53
    Ross J, Teesson M, Darke S, Lynskey M, Ali R, Ritter A, Cooke R. The characteristics of heroin users entering treatment: findings from the Australian treatment outcome study (ATOS). Drug Alcohol Rev 2005; 24: 4118.
  • 54
    Phillips GT, Gossop M, Bradley B. The influence of psychological factors on the opiate withdrawal syndrome. Br J Psychiatry 1986; 149: 2358.
  • 55
    Maremmani I, Pacini M, Lubrano S, Perugi G, Tagliamonte A, Pani PP, Gerra G, Shinderman M. Long-term outcomes of treatment-resistant heroin addicts with and without DSM-IV axis I psychiatric comorbidity (dual diagnosis). Eur Addict Res 2008; 14: 13442.
  • 56
    Larson MJ, Paasche-Orlow M, Cheng DM, Lloyd-Travaglini C, Saitz R, Samet JH. Persistent pain is associated with substance use after detoxification: a prospective cohort analysis. Addiction 2007; 102: 75260.
  • 57
    Pud D, Cohen D, Lawental E, Eisenberg E. Opioids and abnormal pain perception: new evidence from a study of chronic opioid addicts and healthy subjects. Drug Alcohol Depend 2006; 82: 21823.
  • 58
    Ren ZY, Shi J, Epstein DH, Wang J, Lu L. Abnormal pain response in pain-sensitive opiate addicts after prolonged abstinence predicts increased drug craving. Psychopharmacology (Berl) 2009; 204: 4239.