SEARCH

SEARCH BY CITATION

REFERENCES

  • 1
    FitzGerald GA, Oates JA, Hawiger J, Maas RL, Roberts LJ 2nd, Lawson JA, Brash AR. Endogenous biosynthesis of prostacyclin and thromboxane and platelet function during chronic administration of aspirin in man. J Clin Invest 1983; 71: 67688.
  • 2
    Patrono C, Baigent C. Low-dose aspirin, coxibs, and other NSAIDS: a clinical mosaic emerges. Mol Interv 2009; 9: 319.
  • 3
    Vane JR, Bakhle YS, Botting RM. Cyclooxygenases 1 and 2. Annu Rev Pharmacol Toxicol 1998; 38: 97120.
  • 4
    Mitchell JA, Warner TD. COX isoforms in the cardiovascular system: understanding the activities of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. Nat Rev Drug Discov 2006; 5: 7586.
  • 5
    Warner TD, Mitchell JA. Cyclooxygenases: new forms, new inhibitors, and lessons from the clinic. FASEB J 2004; 18: 790804.
  • 6
    Dubois RN, Abramson SB, Crofford L, Gupta RA, Simon LS, Van De Putte LB, Lipsky PE. Cyclooxygenase in biology and disease. FASEB J 1998; 12: 106373.
  • 7
    Flower RJ, Vane JR. Inhibition of prostaglandin biosynthesis. Biochem Pharmacol 1974; 23: 143950.
  • 8
    Warner TD, Mitchell JA. COX-2 selectivity alone does not define the cardiovascular risks associated with non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. Lancet 2008; 371: 2703.
  • 9
    Funk CD, FitzGerald GA. COX-2 inhibitors and cardiovascular risk. J Cardiovasc Pharmacol 2007; 50: 4709.
  • 10
    Deeb RS, Upmacis RK, Lamon BD, Gross SS, Hajjar DP. Maintaining equilibrium by selective targeting of cyclooxygenase pathways: promising offensives against vascular injury. Hypertension 2008; 51: 17.
  • 11
    Hennekens CH, Borzak S. Cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitors and most traditional nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs cause similar moderately increased risks of cardiovascular disease. J Cardiovasc Pharmacol Ther 2008; 13: 4150.
  • 12
    Smith WL, Song I. The enzymology of prostaglandin endoperoxide H synthases-1 and -2. Prostaglandins Other Lipid Mediat 2002; 68–69: 11528.
  • 13
    Hinz B, Brune K. Antipyretic analgesics: nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs, selective COX-2 inhibitors, paracetamol and pyrazolinones. Handb Exp Pharmacol 2007; 177: 6593.
  • 14
    Antman EM, Bennett JS, Daugherty A, Furberg C, Roberts H, Taubert KA. Use of nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs: an update for clinicians: a scientific statement from the American Heart Association. Circulation 2007; 115: 163442.
  • 15
    Fitzgerald GA. Coxibs and cardiovascular disease. N Engl J Med 2004; 351: 170911.
  • 16
    Fitzgerald GA. COX-2 in play at the AHA and the FDA. Trends Pharmacol Sci 2007; 28: 3037.
  • 17
    FitzGerald GA, Patrono C. The coxibs, selective inhibitors of cyclooxygenase-2. N Engl J Med 2001; 345: 43342.
  • 18
    Flavahan NA. Balancing prostanoid activity in the human vascular system. Trends Pharmacol Sci 2007; 28: 10610.
  • 19
    Flower RJ. The development of COX2 inhibitors. Nat Rev 2003; 2: 17991.
  • 20
    Grosser T, Fries S, FitzGerald GA. Biological basis for the cardiovascular consequences of COX-2 inhibition: therapeutic challenges and opportunities. J Clin Invest 2006; 116: 415.
  • 21
    Patrono C, Patrignani P, Garcia Rodriguez LA. Cyclooxygenase-selective inhibition of prostanoid formation: transducing biochemical selectivity into clinical read-outs. J Clin Invest 2001; 108: 713.
  • 22
    Whelton A. COX-2-specific inhibitors and the kidney: effect on hypertension and oedema. J Hypertens Suppl 2002; 20: S315.
  • 23
    White WB. Cardiovascular effects of the cyclooxygenase inhibitors. Hypertension 2007; 49: 40818.
  • 24
    Guan Y, Zhang Y, Wu J, Qi Z, Yang G, Dou D, Gao Y, Chen L, Zhang X, Davis LS, Wei M, Fan X, Carmosino M, Hao C, Imig JD, Breyer RM, Breyer MD. Antihypertensive effects of selective prostaglandin E2 receptor subtype 1 targeting. J Clin Invest 2007; 117: 2496505.
  • 25
    Sellers MM, Stallone JN. Sympathy for the devil: the role of thromboxane in the regulation of vascular tone and blood pressure. Am J Physiol 2008; 294: H197886.
  • 26
    Rosen GD, Birkenmeier TM, Raz A, Holtzman MJ. Identification of a cyclooxygenase-related gene and its potential role in prostaglandin formation. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 1989; 164: 135865.
  • 27
    Hla T, Neilson K. Human cyclooxygenase-2 cDNA. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 1992; 89: 73848.
  • 28
    Kujubu DA, Fletcher BS, Varnum BC, Lim RW, Herschman HR. TIS10, a phorbol ester tumor promoter-inducible mRNA from Swiss 3T3 cells, encodes a novel prostaglandin synthase/cyclooxygenase homologue. J Biol Chem 1991; 266: 1286672.
  • 29
    Masferrer JL, Seibert K, Zweifel B, Needleman P. Endogenous glucocorticoids regulate an inducible cyclooxygenase enzyme. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 1992; 89: 391721.
  • 30
    O'Banion MK, Winn VD, Young DA. cDNA cloning and functional activity of a glucocorticoid-regulated inflammatory cyclooxygenase. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 1992; 89: 488892.
  • 31
    Xie WL, Chipman JG, Robertson DL, Erikson RL, Simmons DL. Expression of a mitogen-responsive gene encoding prostaglandin synthase is regulated by mRNA splicing. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 1991; 88: 26926.
  • 32
    Vane JR, Botting RM. Mechanism of action of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. Am J Med 1998; 104: 2S8S. discussion 21S-22S.
  • 33
    Marcus AJ, Weksler BB, Jaffe EA, Broekman MJ. Synthesis of prostacyclin from platelet-derived endoperoxides by cultured human endothelial cells. J Clin Invest 1980; 66: 97986.
  • 34
    Rocca B, Secchiero P, Ciabattoni G, Ranelletti FO, Catani L, Guidotti L, Melloni E, Maggiano N, Zauli G, Patrono C. Cyclooxygenase-2 expression is induced during human megakaryopoiesis and characterizes newly formed platelets. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2002; 99: 76349.
  • 35
    Guthikonda S, Lev EI, Patel R, DeLao T, Bergeron AL, Dong JF, Kleiman NS. Reticulated platelets and uninhibited COX-1 and COX-2 decrease the antiplatelet effects of aspirin. J Thromb Haemost 2007; 5: 4906.
  • 36
    Evangelista V, Manarini S, Di Santo A, Capone ML, Ricciotti E, Di Francesco L, Tacconelli S, Sacchetti A, D'Angelo S, Scilimati A, Sciulli MG, Patrignani P. De novo synthesis of cyclooxygenase-1 counteracts the suppression of platelet thromboxane biosynthesis by aspirin. Circ Res 2006; 98: 5935.
  • 37
    Weber AA, Przytulski B, Schumacher M, Zimmermann N, Gams E, Hohlfeld T, Schror K. Flow cytometry analysis of platelet cyclooxygenase-2 expression: induction of platelet cyclooxygenase-2 in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting. Br J Haematol 2002; 117: 4246.
  • 38
    Catella-Lawson F, McAdam B, Morrison BW, Kapoor S, Kujubu D, Antes L, Lasseter KC, Quan H, Gertz BJ, FitzGerald GA. Effects of specific inhibition of cyclooxygenase-2 on sodium balance, hemodynamics, and vasoactive eicosanoids. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 1999; 289: 73541.
  • 39
    McAdam BF, Catella-Lawson F, Mardini IA, Kapoor S, Lawson JA, FitzGerald GA. Systemic biosynthesis of prostacyclin by cyclooxygenase (COX)-2: the human pharmacology of a selective inhibitor of COX-2. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 1999; 96: 2727.
  • 40
    Baker CS, Hall RJ, Evans TJ, Pomerance A, Maclouf J, Creminon C, Yacoub MH, Polak JM. Cyclooxygenase-2 is widely expressed in atherosclerotic lesions affecting native and transplanted human coronary arteries and colocalizes with inducible nitric oxide synthase and nitrotyrosine particularly in macrophages. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 1999; 19: 64655.
  • 41
    Belton O, Byrne D, Kearney D, Leahy A, Fitzgerald DJ. Cyclooxygenase-1 and -2-dependent prostacyclin formation in patients with atherosclerosis. Circulation 2000; 102: 8405.
  • 42
    Schonbeck U, Sukhova GK, Graber P, Coulter S, Libby P. Augmented expression of cyclooxygenase-2 in human atherosclerotic lesions. Am J Pathol 1999; 155: 128191.
  • 43
    Stemme V, Swedenborg J, Claesson H, Hansson GK. Expression of cyclo-oxygenase-2 in human atherosclerotic carotid arteries. Eur J Vasc Endovasc Surg 2000; 20: 14652.
  • 44
    Zidar N, Odar K, Glavac D, Jerse M, Zupanc T, Stajer D. Cyclooxygenase in normal human tissues – is COX-1 really a constitutive isoform, and COX-2 an inducible isoform? J Cell Mol Med 2009; 13: 375363.
  • 45
    Warner TD, Vojnovic I, Giuliano F, Jimenez R, Bishop-Bailey D, Mitchell JA. Cyclooxygenases 1, 2, and 3 and the production of prostaglandin I2: investigating the activities of acetaminophen and cyclooxygenase-2-selective inhibitors in rat tissues. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 2004; 310: 6427.
  • 46
    Hamilton LC, Mitchell JA, Tomlinson AM, Warner TD. Synergy between cyclo-oxygenase-2 induction and arachidonic acid supply in vivo: consequences for nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drug efficacy. FASEB J 1999; 13: 24551.
  • 47
    Csiszar A, Ungvari Z, Edwards JG, Kaminski P, Wolin MS, Koller A, Kaley G. Aging-induced phenotypic changes and oxidative stress impair coronary arteriolar function. Circ Res 2002; 90: 115966.
  • 48
    Pratico D, Tillmann C, Zhang ZB, Li H, FitzGerald GA. Acceleration of atherogenesis by COX-1-dependent prostanoid formation in low density lipoprotein receptor knockout mice. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2001; 98: 335863.
  • 49
    Wong E, Huang JQ, Tagari P, Riendeau D. Effects of COX-2 inhibitors on aortic prostacyclin production in cholesterol-fed rabbits. Atherosclerosis 2001; 157: 393402.
  • 50
    Rudic RD, Brinster D, Cheng Y, Fries S, Song WL, Austin S, Coffman TM, FitzGerald GA. COX-2-derived prostacyclin modulates vascular remodeling. Circ Res 2005; 96: 12407.
  • 51
    Kobayashi T, Narumiya S. Function of prostanoid receptors: studies on knockout mice. Prostaglandins Other Lipid Mediat 2002; 68–69: 55773.
  • 52
    Sugimoto Y, Narumiya S. Prostaglandin E receptors. J Biol Chem 2007; 282: 116137.
  • 53
    Gross S, Tilly P, Hentsch D, Vonesch JL, Fabre JE. Vascular wall-produced prostaglandin E2 exacerbates arterial thrombosis and atherothrombosis through platelet EP3 receptors. J Exp Med 2007; 204: 31120.
  • 54
    Heptinstall S, Espinosa DI, Manolopoulos P, Glenn JR, White AE, Johnson A, Dovlatova N, Fox SC, May JA, Hermann D, Magnusson O, Stefansson K, Hartman D, Gurney M. DG-041 inhibits the EP3 prostanoid receptor – a new target for inhibition of platelet function in atherothrombotic disease. Platelets 2008; 19: 60513.
  • 55
    Smith JP, Haddad EV, Downey JD, Breyer RM, Boutaud O. PGE2 decreases reactivity of human platelets by activating EP2 and EP4. Thromb Res 2010; 126: e239.
  • 56
    Paul BZ, Ashby B, Sheth SB. Distribution of prostaglandin IP and EP receptor subtypes and isoforms in platelets and human umbilical artery smooth muscle cells. Br J Haematol 1998; 102: 120411.
  • 57
    Mao GF, Jin JG, Bastepe M, Ortiz-Vega S, Ashby B. Prostaglandin E2 both stimulates and inhibits adenyl cyclase on platelets: comparison of effects on cloned EP4 and EP3 prostaglandin receptor subtypes. Prostaglandins 1996; 52: 17585.
  • 58
    Patrono C, Garcia Rodriguez LA, Landolfi R, Baigent C. Low-dose aspirin for the prevention of atherothrombosis. N Engl J Med 2005; 353: 237383.
  • 59
    Reilly IA, FitzGerald GA. Inhibition of thromboxane formation in vivo and ex vivo: implications for therapy with platelet inhibitory drugs. Blood 1987; 69: 1806.
  • 60
    Baigent C, Blackwell L, Collins R, Emberson J, Godwin J, Peto R, Buring J, Hennekens C, Kearney P, Meade T, Patrono C, Roncaglioni MC, Zanchetti A. Aspirin in the primary and secondary prevention of vascular disease: collaborative meta-analysis of individual participant data from randomised trials. Lancet 2009; 373: 184960.
  • 61
    Mehta SR, Bassand JP, Chrolavicius S, Diaz R, Eikelboom JW, Fox KA, Granger CB, Jolly S, Joyner CD, Rupprecht HJ, Widimsky P, Afzal R, Pogue J, Yusuf S. Dose comparisons of clopidogrel and aspirin in acute coronary syndromes. N Engl J Med 2010; 363: 93042.
  • 62
    Mehta SR, Tanguay JF, Eikelboom JW, Jolly SS, Joyner CD, Granger CB, Faxon DP, Rupprecht HJ, Budaj A, Avezum A, Widimsky P, Steg PG, Bassand JP, Montalescot G, Macaya C, Di Pasquale G, Niemela K, Ajani AE, White HD, Chrolavicius S, Gao P, Fox KA, Yusuf S. Double-dose versus standard-dose clopidogrel and high-dose versus low-dose aspirin in individuals undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention for acute coronary syndromes (CURRENT-OASIS 7): a randomised factorial trial. Lancet 2010; 376: 123343.
  • 63
    Patrono C, Baigent C, Hirsh J, Roth G. Antiplatelet drugs: American College of Chest Physicians Evidence-Based Clinical Practice Guidelines (8th Edition). Chest 2008; 133: 199S233S.
  • 64
    Campbell CL, Smyth S, Montalescot G, Steinhubl SR. Aspirin dose for the prevention of cardiovascular disease: a systematic review. JAMA 2007; 297: 201824.
  • 65
    Hernandez-Diaz S, Garcia Rodriguez LA. Cardioprotective aspirin users and their excess risk of upper gastrointestinal complications. BMC Med 2006; 4: 22.
  • 66
    The Dutch TIA Trial Study Group. A comparison of two doses of aspirin (30 mg vs. 283 mg a day) in patients after a transient ischemic attack or minor ischemic stroke. N Engl J Med 1991; 325: 12616.
  • 67
    Lanas A, Garcia-Rodriguez LA, Arroyo MT, Gomollon F, Feu F, Gonzalez-Perez A, Zapata E, Bastida G, Rodrigo L, Santolaria S, Guell M, de Argila CM, Quintero E, Borda F, Pique JM. Risk of upper gastrointestinal ulcer bleeding associated with selective cyclo-oxygenase-2 inhibitors, traditional non-aspirin non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, aspirin and combinations. Gut 2006; 55: 17318.
  • 68
    Wolfe MM, Lichtenstein DR, Singh G. Gastrointestinal toxicity of nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs. N Engl J Med 1999; 340: 188899.
  • 69
    Duffy SJ, Castle SF, Harper RW, Meredith IT. Contribution of vasodilator prostanoids and nitric oxide to resting flow, metabolic vasodilation, and flow-mediated dilation in human coronary circulation. Circulation 1999; 100: 19517.
  • 70
    Friedman PL, Brown EJ Jr, Gunther S, Alexander RW, Barry WH, Mudge GH Jr, Grossman W. Coronary vasoconstrictor effect of indomethacin in patients with coronary-artery disease. N Engl J Med 1981; 305: 11715.
  • 71
    Arehart E, Stitham J, Asselbergs FW, Douville K, Mackenzie T, Fetalvero KM, Gleim S, Kasza Z, Rao Y, Martel L, Segel S, Robb J, Kaplan A, Simons M, Powell RJ, Moore JH, Rimm EB, Martin KA, Hwa J. Acceleration of cardiovascular disease by a dysfunctional prostacyclin receptor mutation. Potential implications for cyclooxygenase-2 inhibition. Circ Res 2008; 102: 98693.
  • 72
    Kobayashi T, Tahara Y, Matsumoto M, Iguchi M, Sano H, Murayama T, Arai H, Oida H, Yurugi-Kobayashi T, Yamashita JK, Katagiri H, Majima M, Yokode M, Kita T, Narumiya S. Roles of thromboxane A(2) and prostacyclin in the development of atherosclerosis in apoE-deficient mice. J Clin Invest 2004; 114: 78494.
  • 73
    Egan KM, Wang M, Fries S, Lucitt MB, Zukas AM, Pure E, Lawson JA, FitzGerald GA. Cyclooxygenases, thromboxane, and atherosclerosis: plaque destabilization by cyclooxygenase-2 inhibition combined with thromboxane receptor antagonism. Circulation 2005; 111: 33442.
  • 74
    Cheng Y, Austin SC, Rocca B, Koller BH, Coffman TM, Grosser T, Lawson JA, FitzGerald GA. Role of prostacyclin in the cardiovascular response to thromboxane A2. Science (New York, NY) 2002; 296: 53941.
  • 75
    Xiao CY, Hara A, Yuhki K, Fujino T, Ma H, Okada Y, Takahata O, Yamada T, Murata T, Narumiya S, Ushikubi F. Roles of prostaglandin I(2) and thromboxane A(2) in cardiac ischemia-reperfusion injury: a study using mice lacking their respective receptors. Circulation 2001; 104: 22105.
  • 76
    Cheng Y, Wang M, Yu Y, Lawson J, Funk CD, Fitzgerald GA. Cyclooxygenases, microsomal prostaglandin E synthase-1, and cardiovascular function. J Clin Invest 2006; 116: 13919.
  • 77
    Kearney PM, Baigent C, Godwin J, Halls H, Emberson JR, Patrono C. Do selective cyclo-oxygenase-2 inhibitors and traditional non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs increase the risk of atherothrombosis? Meta-analysis of randomised trials. BMJ 2006; 332: 13028.
  • 78
    Cooney MT, Dudina AL, Graham IM. Value and limitations of existing scores for the assessment of cardiovascular risk: a review for clinicians. J Am Coll Cardiol 2009; 54: 120927.
  • 79
    McGettigan P, Han P, Jones L, Whitaker D, Henry D. Selective COX-2 inhibitors, NSAIDs and congestive heart failure: differences between new and recurrent cases. Br J Clin Pharmacol 2008; 65: 92734.
  • 80
    Forman JP, Rimm EB, Curhan GC. Frequency of analgesic use and risk of hypertension among men. Arch Intern Med 2007; 167: 3949.
  • 81
    Yu Y, Lucitt MB, Stubbe J, Cheng Y, Friis UG, Hansen PB, Jensen BL, Smyth EM, FitzGerald GA. Prostaglandin F2alpha elevates blood pressure and promotes atherosclerosis. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2009; 106: 798590.
  • 82
    FitzGerald GA, Brash AR, Falardeau P, Oates JA. Estimated rate of prostacyclin secretion into the circulation of normal man. J Clin Invest 1981; 68: 12726.
  • 83
    Patrono C, Ciabattoni G, Pugliese F, Pierucci A, Blair IA, FitzGerald GA. Estimated rate of thromboxane secretion into the circulation of normal humans. J Clin Invest 1986; 77: 5904.
  • 84
    McAdam BF, Byrne D, Morrow JD, Oates JA. Contribution of cyclooxygenase-2 to elevated biosynthesis of thromboxane A2 and prostacyclin in cigarette smokers. Circulation 2005; 112: 10249.
  • 85
    Catella F, Healy D, Lawson JA, FitzGerald GA. 11-Dehydrothromboxane B2: a quantitative index of thromboxane A2 formation in the human circulation. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 1986; 83: 58615.
  • 86
    Murphy RC, FitzGerald GA. Current approaches to estimation of eicosanoid formation in vivo. Adv Prostaglandin Thromboxane Leukot Res 1994; 22: 3418.
  • 87
    Clarke RJ, Mayo G, Price P, FitzGerald GA. Suppression of thromboxane A2 but not of systemic prostacyclin by controlled-release aspirin. N Engl J Med 1991; 325: 113741.
  • 88
    Hanley SP, Bevan J, Cockbill SR, Heptinstall S. Differential inhibition by low-dose aspirin of human venous prostacyclin synthesis and platelet thromboxane synthesis. Lancet 1981; 1: 96971.
  • 89
    Preston FE, Whipps S, Jackson CA, French AJ, Wyld PJ, Stoddard CJ. Inhibition of prostacyclin and platelet thromboxane A2 after low-dose aspirin. N Engl J Med 1981; 304: 769.
  • 90
    Weksler BB, Pett SB, Alonso D, Richter RC, Stelzer P, Subramanian V, Tack-Goldman K, Gay WA Jr. Differential inhibition by aspirin of vascular and platelet prostaglandin synthesis in atherosclerotic patients. N Engl J Med 1983; 308: 8005.
  • 91
    Hanley SP, Bevan J. Inhibition by aspirin of human arterial and venous prostacyclin synthesis. Prostaglandins Leukot Med 1985; 20: 1419.
  • 92
    Kyrle PA, Eichler HG, Jager U, Lechner K. Inhibition of prostacyclin and thromboxane A2 generation by low-dose aspirin at the site of plug formation in man in vivo. Circulation 1987; 75: 10259.
  • 93
    Davi G, Custro N, Novo S, Mattina A, Strano A. The effect of two low doses of aspirin on whole blood thromboxane and prostacyclin generation in healthy subjects. Thromb Haemost 1983; 50: 66970.
  • 94
    Tohgi H, Konno S, Tamura K, Kimura B, Kawano K. Effects of low-to-high doses of aspirin on platelet aggregability and metabolites of thromboxane A2 and prostacyclin. Stroke 1992; 23: 14003.
  • 95
    Gow JA, Ebbeling L, Gerrard JM. The effect of regular and enteric-coated aspirin on bleeding time, thromboxane, and prostacyclin. Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids 1993; 49: 51520.
  • 96
    Boger RH, Bode-Boger SM, Gutzki FM, Tsikas D, Weskott HP, Frolich JC. Rapid and selective inhibition of platelet aggregation and thromboxane formation by intravenous low dose aspirin in man. Clin Sci (Lond) 1993; 84: 51724.
  • 97
    Gao XR, Adhikari CM, Peng LY, Guo XG, Zhai YS, He XY, Zhang LY, Lin J, Zuo ZY. Efficacy of different doses of aspirin in decreasing blood levels of inflammatory markers in patients with cardiovascular metabolic syndrome. J Pharm Pharmacol 2009; 61: 150510.
  • 98
    Jaffe EA, Weksler BB. Recovery of endothelial cell prostacyclin production after inhibition by low doses of aspirin. J Clin Invest 1979; 63: 5325.
  • 99
    Whiting J, Salata K, Bailey JM. Aspirin: an unexpected side effect on prostacyclin synthesis in cultured vascular smooth muscle cells. Science 1980; 210: 6635.
  • 100
    Salata KF, Whiting JD, Bailey JM. Regeneration of prostacyclin synthetase activity in cultured vascular cells following aspirin treatment. Adv Prostaglandin Thromboxane Res 1980; 6: 53740.
  • 101
    Bailey JM, Muza B, Hla T, Salata K. Restoration of prostacyclin synthase in vascular smooth muscle cells after aspirin treatment: regulation by epidermal growth factor. J Lipid Res 1985; 26: 5461.
  • 102
    Hla TT, Bailey JM. Differential recovery of prostacyclin synthesis in cultured vascular endothelial vs. smooth muscle cells after inactivation of cyclooxygenase with aspirin. Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids 1989; 36: 17584.
  • 103
    Gerrard JM, Taback S, Singhroy S, Docherty JC, Kostolansky I, McNicol A, Kobrinsky NL, McKenzie JK, Rowe R. In vivo measurement of thromboxane B2 and 6-keto-prostaglandin F1 alpha in humans in response to a standardized vascular injury and the influence of aspirin. Circulation 1989; 79: 2938.
  • 104
    Preston FE, Greaves M, Jackson CA, Stoddard CJ. Low-dose aspirin inhibits platelet and venous cyclo-oxygenase in man. Thromb Res 1982; 27: 47784.
  • 105
    Heavey DJ, Barrow SE, Hickling NE, Ritter JM. Aspirin causes short-lived inhibition of bradykinin-stimulated prostacyclin production in man. Nature 1985; 318: 1868.
  • 106
    Vesterqvist O. Rapid recovery of in vivo prostacyclin formation after inhibition by aspirin. Evidence from measurements of the major urinary metabolite of prostacyclin by GC-MS. Eur J Clin Pharmacol 1986; 30: 6973.
  • 107
    Ritter JM, Cockcroft JR, Doktor HS, Beacham J, Barrow SE. Differential effect of aspirin on thromboxane and prostaglandin biosynthesis in man. Br J Clin Pharmacol 1989; 28: 5739.
  • 108
    Gachet C. Regulation of platelet functions by P2 receptors. Annu Rev Pharmacol Toxicol 2006; 46: 277300.
  • 109
    Cattaneo M. ADP receptors: inhibitory strategies for antiplatelet therapy. Drug News Perspect 2006; 19: 2539.
  • 110
    Gachet C. The platelet P2 receptors as molecular targets for old and new antiplatelet drugs. Pharmacol Ther 2005; 108: 18092.
  • 111
    Gachet C. P2 receptors, platelet function and pharmacological implications. Thromb Haemost 2008; 99: 46672.
  • 112
    Cattaneo M. Platelet P2 receptors: old and new targets for antithrombotic drugs. Expert Rev Cardiovasc Ther 2007; 5: 4555.
  • 113
    Kahner BN, Shankar H, Murugappan S, Prasad GL, Kunapuli SP. Nucleotide receptor signaling in platelets. J Thromb Haemost 2006; 4: 231726.
  • 114
    Cattaneo M. New P2Y12 blockers. J Thromb Haemost 2009; 7: (Suppl. 1): 2625.
  • 115
    Jakubowski JA, Winters KJ, Naganuma H, Wallentin L. Prasugrel: a novel thienopyridine antiplatelet agent. A review of preclinical and clinical studies and the mechanistic basis for its distinct antiplatelet profile. Cardiovasc Drug Rev 2007; 25: 35774.
  • 116
    Wallentin L, Becker RC, Budaj A, Cannon CP, Emanuelsson H, Held C, Horrow J, Husted S, James S, Katus H, Mahaffey KW, Scirica BM, Skene A, Steg PG, Storey RF, Harrington RA, Freij A, Thorsen M. Ticagrelor versus clopidogrel in patients with acute coronary syndromes. N Engl J Med 2009; 361: 104557.
  • 117
    Cattaneo M. Aspirin and clopidogrel: Efficacy, safety, and the issue of drug resistance. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 2004; 24: 198087.
  • 118
    Fitzgerald DJ, Maree A. Aspirin and clopidogrel resistance. Hematology Am Soc Hematol Educ Program 2007; 2007: 11420.
  • 119
    Li Z, Zhang G, Le Breton GC, Gao X, Malik AB, Du X. Two waves of platelet secretion induced by thromboxane A2 receptor and a critical role for phosphoinositide 3-kinases. J Biol Chem 2003; 278: 3072531.
  • 120
    Hobson AR, Qureshi Z, Banks P, Curzen NP. Effects of clopidogrel on ‘aspirin specific’ pathways of platelet inhibition. Platelets 2009; 20: 38690.
  • 121
    Armstrong PC, Dhanji AR, Truss NJ, Zain ZN, Tucker AT, Mitchell JA, Warner TD. Utility of 96-well plate aggregometry and measurement of thrombi adhesion to determine aspirin and clopidogrel effectiveness. Thromb Haemost 2009; 102: 7728.
  • 122
    Guidetti GF, Lova P, Bernardi B, Campus F, Baldanzi G, Graziani A, Balduini C, Torti M. The Gi-coupled P2Y12 receptor regulates diacylglycerol-mediated signaling in human platelets. J Biol Chem 2008; 283: 28795805.
  • 123
    Cattaneo M, Lecchi A. Inhibition of the platelet P2Y12 receptor for adenosine diphosphate potentiates the antiplatelet effect of prostacyclin. J Thromb Haemost 2007; 5: 57782.
  • 124
    Armstrong PC, Dhanji AR, Tucker AT, Mitchell JA, Warner TD. Reduction of platelet thromboxane A2 production ex vivo and in vivo by clopidogrel therapy. J Thromb Haemost 2010; 8: 6135.
  • 125
    Armstrong PC, Leadbeater PD, Chan MV, Kirkby NS, Jakubowski JA, Mitchell JA, Warner TD. In the presence of strong P2Y(12) receptor blockade, aspirin provides little additional inhibition of platelet aggregation. J Thromb Haemost 2011; 9: 55261.
  • 126
    Hallas J, Dall M, Andries A, Andersen BS, Aalykke C, Hansen JM, Andersen M, Lassen AT. Use of single and combined antithrombotic therapy and risk of serious upper gastrointestinal bleeding: population based case-control study. BMJ 2006; 333: 726.
  • 127
    Shehab N, Sperling LS, Kegler SR, Budnitz DS. National estimates of emergency department visits for hemorrhage-related adverse events from clopidogrel plus aspirin and from warfarin. Arch Intern Med 2010; 170: 192633.
  • 128
    Wang TY, Xiao L, Alexander KP, Rao SV, Kosiborod MN, Rumsfeld JS, Spertus JA, Peterson ED. Antiplatelet therapy use after discharge among acute myocardial infarction patients with in-hospital bleeding. Circulation 2008; 118: 213945.
  • 129
    Roy P, Bonello L, Torguson R, de Labriolle A, Lemesle G, Slottow TL, Steinberg DH, Kaneshige K, Xue Z, Satler LF, Kent KM, Suddath WO, Pichard AD, Lindsay J, Waksman R. Impact of ‘nuisance’ bleeding on clopidogrel compliance in patients undergoing intracoronary drug-eluting stent implantation. Am J Cardiol 2008; 102: 16147.
  • 130
    Wiviott SD, Antman EM, Gibson CM, Montalescot G, Riesmeyer J, Weerakkody G, Winters KJ, Warmke JW, McCabe CH, Braunwald E. Evaluation of prasugrel compared with clopidogrel in patients with acute coronary syndromes: design and rationale for the TRial to assess Improvement in Therapeutic Outcomes by optimizing platelet InhibitioN with prasugrel Thrombolysis In Myocardial Infarction 38 (TRITON-TIMI 38). Am Heart J 2006; 152: 62735.
  • 131
    Wiviott SD, Braunwald E, McCabe CH, Horvath I, Keltai M, Herrman JP, Van de Werf F, Downey WE, Scirica BM, Murphy SA, Antman EM. Intensive oral antiplatelet therapy for reduction of ischaemic events including stent thrombosis in patients with acute coronary syndromes treated with percutaneous coronary intervention and stenting in the TRITON-TIMI 38 trial: a subanalysis of a randomised trial. Lancet 2008; 371: 135363.
  • 132
    Wiviott SD, Braunwald E, McCabe CH, Montalescot G, Ruzyllo W, Gottlieb S, Neumann FJ, Ardissino D, De Servi S, Murphy SA, Riesmeyer J, Weerakkody G, Gibson CM, Antman EM. Prasugrel versus clopidogrel in patients with acute coronary syndromes. N Engl J Med 2007; 357: 200115.
  • 133
    Peters RJ, Mehta SR, Fox KA, Zhao F, Lewis BS, Kopecky SL, Diaz R, Commerford PJ, Valentin V, Yusuf S. Effects of aspirin dose when used alone or in combination with clopidogrel in patients with acute coronary syndromes: observations from the Clopidogrel in Unstable angina to prevent Recurrent Events (CURE) study. Circulation 2003; 108: 16827.
  • 134
    AstraZeneca. Ticagrelor NDA 22-433 Briefing Document for Cardiovascular and Renal Drugs Advisory Committee Meeting. Available at http://www.fda.gov/downloads/AdvisoryCommitteesMeetingMaterials/Drugs/CardiovascularandRenalDrugsAdvisoryCommittee/UCM220197.pdf (last accessed 30 July 2010).
  • 135
    Kong DF, Hasselblad V, Kandzari DE, Newby LK, Califf RM. Seeking the optimal aspirin dose in acute coronary syndromes. Am J Cardiol 2002; 90: 6225.
  • 136
    Antiplatelet Trialists' Collaboration. Collaborative overview of randomised trials of antiplatelet therapy – I: prevention of death, myocardial infarction, and stroke by prolonged antiplatelet therapy in various categories of patients. BMJ 1994; 308: 81106.
  • 137
    Sample D, Wargovich M, Fischer SM, Inamdar N, Schwartz P, Wang X, Do KA, Sinicrope FA. A dose-finding study of aspirin for chemoprevention utilizing rectal mucosal prostaglandin E(2) levels as a biomarker. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 2002; 11: 2759.
  • 138
    Cole AT, Filipowicz B, Hyman-Taylor P, Hawkey CJ. Low dose aspirin: selective inhibition of rectal dialysis thromboxane B2 in healthy volunteers. Aliment Pharmacol Ther 1994; 8: 5216.