SEARCH

SEARCH BY CITATION

REFERENCES

  • 1
    Alexander SPH, Mathie A, Peters JA. Guide to Receptors and Channels (GRAC), 4th edition. Br J Pharmacol 2009; 158: (Suppl. 1): S1S254.
  • 2
    Storey RF, Newby LJ, Heptinstall S. Effects of P2Y(1) and P2Y(12) receptor antagonists on platelet aggregation induced by different agonists in human whole blood. Platelets 2001; 12: 4437.
  • 3
    Gachet C. P2 receptors, platelet function and pharmacological implications. Thromb Haemost 2008; 99: 46672.
  • 4
    Gachet C, Léon C, Hechler B. The platelet P2 receptors in arterial thrombosis. Blood Cells Mol Dis 2006; 36: 2237.
  • 5
    Bennett JS. Platelet-fibrinogen interactions. Ann NY Acad Sci 2001; 936: 34054.
  • 6
    Jennings LK. Mechanisms of platelet activation: need for new strategies to protect against platelet-mediated atherothrombosis. Thromb Haemost 2009; 102: 24857.
  • 7
    Marcus AJ, Broekman MJ, Drosopoulos JH, Olson KE, Islam N, Pinsky DJ, Levi R. Role of CD39 (NTPDase-1) in thromboregulation, cerebroprotection, and cardioprotection. Semin Thromb Hemost 2005; 31: 23446.
  • 8
    Glenn JR, White AE, Johnson A, Fox SC, Behan MW, Dolan G, Heptinstall S. Leukocyte count and leukocyte ecto-nucleotidase are major determinants of the effects of adenosine triphosphate and adenosine diphosphate on platelet aggregation in human blood. Platelets 2005; 16: 15970.
  • 9
    Hu H, Hoylaerts MF. The P2X1 ion channel in platelet function. Platelets 2010; 21: 15366.
  • 10
    Li Z, Delaney MK, O'Brien KA, Du X. Signaling during platelet adhesion and activation. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 2010; 30: 23419.
  • 11
    Jin J, Quinton TM, Zhang J, Rittenhouse SE, Kunapuli SP. Adenosine diphosphate (ADP)-induced thromboxane A(2) generation in human platelets requires coordinated signaling through integrin alpha(IIb)beta(3) and ADP receptors. Blood 2002; 99: 1938.
  • 12
    Storey RF, Judge HM, Wilcox RG, Heptinstall S. Inhibition of ADP-induced P-selectin expression and platelet-leukocyte conjugate formation by clopidogrel and the P2Y12 receptor antagonist AR-C69931MX but not aspirin. Thromb Haemost 2002; 88: 48894.
  • 13
    Kahner BN, Dorsam RT, Kunapuli SP. Role of P2Y receptor subtypes in platelet-derived microparticle generation. Front Biosci 2008; 13: 4339.
  • 14
    Fabre JE, Nguyen M, Latour A, Keifer JA, Audoly LP, Coffman TM, Koller BH. Decreased platelet aggregation, increased bleeding time and resistance to thromboembolism in P2Y1-deficient mice. Nat Med 1999; 5: 1199202.
  • 15
    Léon C, Freund M, Ravanat C, Baurand A, Cazenave JP, Gachet C. Key role of the P2Y(1) receptor in tissue factor-induced thrombin-dependent acute thromboembolism: studies in P2Y(1)-knockout mice and mice treated with a P2Y(1) antagonist. Circulation 2001; 103: 71823.
  • 16
    Baurand A, Raboisson P, Freund M, Léon C, Cazenave JP, Bourguignon JJ, Gachet C. Inhibition of platelet function by administration of MRS2179, a P2Y1 receptor antagonist. Eur J Pharmacol 2001; 412: 21321.
  • 17
    Boyer JL, Adams M, Ravi RG, Jacobson KA, Harden TK. 2-Chloro N(6)-methyl-(N)-methanocarba-2′-deoxyadenosine-3′,5′-bisphosphate is a selective high affinity P2Y(1) receptor antagonist. Br J Pharmacol 2002; 135: 200410.
  • 18
    Hechler B, Nonne C, Roh EJ, Cattaneo M, Cazenave JP, Lanza F, Jacobson KA, Gachet C. MRS2500 [2-iodo-N6-methyl-(N)-methanocarba-2′-deoxyadenosine-3′,5′-bisphosphate], a potent, selective, and stable antagonist of the platelet P2Y1 receptor with strong antithrombotic activity in mice. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 2006; 316: 55663.
  • 19
    Manolopoulos P, Glenn JR, Fox SC, May JA, Dovlatova NL, Tang SW, Thomas NR, Ralevic V, Heptinstall S. Acyl derivatives of coenzyme A inhibit platelet function via antagonism at P2Y1 and P2Y12 receptors: a new finding that may influence the design of anti-thrombotic agents. Platelets 2008; 19: 13445.
  • 20
    Pfefferkorn JA, Choi C, Winters T, Kennedy R, Chi L, Perrin LA, Lu G, Ping YW, McClanahan T, Schroeder R, Leininger MT, Geyer A, Schefzick S, Atherton J. P2Y1 receptor antagonists as novel antithrombotic agents. Bioorg Med Chem Lett 2008; 18: 333843.
  • 21
    Thalji RK, Aiyar N, Davenport EA, Erhardt JA, Kallal LA, Morrow DM, Senadhi S, Burns-Kurtis CL, Marino JP Jr. Benzofuran-substituted urea derivatives as novel P2Y(1) receptor antagonists. Bioorg Med Chem Lett 2010; 20: 41047.
  • 22
    Kunapuli SP, Ding Z, Dorsam RT, Kim S, Murugappan S, Quinton TM. ADP receptors-targets for developing antithrombotic agents. Curr Pharm Des 2003; 9: 230316.
  • 23
    NICE Guidelines. Clopidogrel and modified-release dipyridamole for the prevention of occlusive vascular events. 2010. NICE Technology Appraisal Guidance 210 [Online] NICE 2010. Available at http://www.nice.org.uk/nicemedia/live/13285/52030/52030.pdf[last accessed 31 March 2011].
  • 24
    US National Library of Medicine. Ticlopidine hydrochloride. 2009. Current Medication Information [Online] NLM 2009. Available at http://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?id=11822[last accessed 31 March 2011].
  • 25
    Savi P, Pereillo JM, Uzabiaga MF, Combalbert J, Picard C, Maffrand JP, Pascal M, Herbert JM. Identification and biological activity of the active metabolite of clopidogrel. Thromb Haemost 2000; 84: 8916.
  • 26
    CAPRIE Steering Committee. A randomised, blinded, trial of clopidogrel versus aspirin in patients at risk of ischaemic events (CAPRIE). Lancet 1996; 348: 132939.
  • 27
    Fox KA, Mehta SR, Peters R, Zhao F, Lakkis N, Gersh BJ, Yusuf S. Benefits and risks of the combination of clopidogrel and aspirin in patients undergoing surgical revascularization for non-ST-elevation acute coronary syndrome: the Clopidogrel in Unstable angina to prevent Recurrent ischemic Events (CURE) Trial. Circulation 2004; 110: 12028.
  • 28
    Peters BJ, Harmsze AM, Ten Berg JM, Maitland-van der Zee AH, Tjoeng MM, de Boer A, Deneer VH. CYP2C19 and ABCB1 genes and individualized treatment with clopidogrel. Pharmacogenomics 2011; 12: 1414.
  • 29
    Xie HG, Zou JJ, Hu ZY, Zhang JJ, Ye F, Chen SL. Individual variability in the disposition of and response to clopidogrel: pharmacogenomics and beyond. Pharmacol Ther 2011; 129: 26789.
  • 30
    Bouman HJ, Schömig E, van Werkum JW, Velder J, Hackeng CM, Hirschhäuser C, Waldmann C, Schmalz HG, ten Berg JM, Taubert D. Paraoxonase-1 is a major determinant of clopidogrel efficacy. Nat Med 2011; 17: 1106.
  • 31
    Arméro S, Camoin Jau L, Omar Aït Mokhtar O, Mancini J, Burignat-Bonello C, Tahirou I, Arques S, Dignat-George F, Paganelli F, Bonello L. Intra-individual variability in clopidogrel responsiveness in coronary artery disease patients under long term therapy. Platelets 2010; 21: 5037.
  • 32
    Sofi F, Marcucci R, Gori AM, Giusti B, Abbate R, Gensini GF. Clopidogrel non-responsiveness and risk of cardiovascular morbidity. An updated meta-analysis. Thromb Haemost 2010; 103: 8418.
  • 33
    Price MJ. Bedside evaluation of thienopyridine antiplatelet therapy. Circulation 2009; 119: 262532.
  • 34
    Fox SC, May JA, Shah A, Neubert U, Heptinstall S. Measurement of platelet P-selectin for remote testing of platelet function during treatment with clopidogrel and/or aspirin. Platelets 2009; 20: 2509.
  • 35
    Ko YG, Suh JW, Kim BH, Lee CJ, Kim JS, Choi D, Hong MK, Seo MK, Youn TJ, Chae IH, Choi DJ, Jang Y. Comparison of 2 point-of-care platelet function tests, VerifyNow Assay and Multiple Electrode Platelet Aggregometry, for predicting early clinical outcomes in patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention. Am Heart J 2011; 161: 38390.
  • 36
    Koessler J, Kobsar AL, Rajkovic MS, Schafer A, Flierl U, Pfoertsch S, Bauersachs J, Steigerwald U, Rechner AR, Walter U. The new INNOVANCE® PFA P2Y cartridge is sensitive to the detection of the P2Y12 receptor inhibition. Platelets 2011; 22: 1925.
  • 37
    Price MJ, Berger PB, Teirstein PS, Tanguay JF, Angiolillo DJ, Spriggs D, Puri S, Robbins M, Garratt KN, Bertrand OF, Stillablower ME, Aragon JR, Kandzari DE, Stinis CT, Lee MS, Manoukian SV, Cannon CP, Schork NJ, Topol EJ, GRAVITAS Investigators. Standard- vs high-dose clopidogrel based on platelet function testing after percutaneous coronary intervention: the GRAVITAS randomized trial. JAMA 2011; 305: 1097105.
  • 38
    Mehta SR, Tanguay JF, Eikelboom JW, Jolly SS, Joyner CD, Granger CB, Faxon DP, Rupprecht HJ, Budaj A, Avezum A, Widimsky P, Steg PG, Bassand JP, Montalescot G, Macaya C, Di Pasquale G, Niemela K, Ajani AE, White HD, Chrolavicius S, Gao P, Fox KA, Yusuf S. CURRENT-OASIS 7 trial investigators. Double-dose versus standard-dose clopidogrel and high-dose versus low-dose aspirin in individuals undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention for acute coronary syndromes (CURRENT-OASIS 7): a randomised factorial trial. Lancet 2010; 376: 123343.
  • 39
    Gurbel PA, Tantry US. An initial experiment with personalized antiplatelet therapy: the GRAVITAS trial. JAMA 2011; 305: 11367.
  • 40
    Valgimigli M, Campo G, de Cesare N, Meliga E, Vranckx P, Furgieri A, Angiolillo DJ, Sabatè M, Hamon M, Repetto A, Colangelo S, Brugaletta S, Parrinello G, Percoco G, Ferrari R. Tailoring Treatment With Tirofiban in Patients Showing Resistance to Aspirin and/or Resistance to Clopidogrel (3T/2R) Investigators. Intensifying platelet inhibition with tirofiban in poor responders to aspirin, clopidogrel, or both agents undergoing elective coronary intervention: results from the double-blind, prospective, randomized Tailoring Treatment with Tirofiban in Patients Showing Resistance to Aspirin and/or Resistance to Clopidogrel study. Circulation 2009; 119: 321522.
  • 41
    British Medical Association and the Royal Pharmaceutical Society. British National Formulary: clopidogrel. Available at http://bnf.org/bnf/bnf/61/213738.htm#_213738[last accessed 31 March 2011].
  • 42
    Kim SD, Kang W, Lee HW, Park DJ, Ahn JH, Kim MJ, Kim EY, Kim SW, Nam HS, Na HJ, Yoon YR. Bioequivalence and tolerability of two clopidogrel salt preparations, besylate and bisulfate: a randomized, open-label, crossover study in healthy Korean male subjects. Clin Ther 2009; 31: 793803.
  • 43
    Neubauer H, Krüger JC, Lask S, Endres HG, Pepinghege F, Engelhardt A, Bulut D, Mügge A. Comparing the antiplatelet effect of clopidogrel hydrogensulfate and clopidogrel besylate: a crossover study. Clin Res Cardiol 2009; 98: 53340.
  • 44
    Park JY, Kim KA, Ryu JH, Lee GH, Jeon SH, Kim JS. Pharmacokinetics and the antiplatelet effect of a new clopidogrel formulation, clopidogrel besylate, in healthy subjects. Int J Clin Pharmacol Ther 2010; 48: 25969.
  • 45
    Jakubowski JA, Winters KJ, Naganuma H, Wallentin L. Prasugrel: a novel thienopyridine antiplatelet agent. A review of preclinical and clinical studies and the mechanistic basis for its distinct antiplatelet profile. Cardiovasc Drug Rev 2007; 25: 35774.
  • 46
    Wallentin L. P2Y(12) inhibitors: differences in properties and mechanisms of action and potential consequences for clinical use. Eur Heart J 2009; 30: 196477.
  • 47
    Michelson AD. New P2Y12 antagonists. Curr Opin Hematol 2009; 16: 3717.
  • 48
    Brandt JT, Close SL, Iturria SJ, Payne CD, Farid NA, Ernest CS 2nd, Lachno DR, Salazar D, Winters KJ. Common polymorphisms of CYP2C19 and CYP2C9 affect the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic response to clopidogrel but not prasugrel. J Thromb Haemost 2007; 5: 242936.
  • 49
    Wiviott SD, Braunwald E, McCabe CH, Montalescot G, Ruzyllo W, Gottlieb S, Neumann FJ, Ardissino D, De Servi S, Murphy SA, Riesmeyer J, Weerakkody G, Gibson CM, Antman EM, TRITON-TIMI 38 Investigators. Prasugrel versus clopidogrel in patients with acute coronary syndromes. N Engl J Med 2007; 357: 200115.
  • 50
    NICE Guidelines. 2009. Prasugrel for the treatment of acute coronary syndromes with percutaneous coronary intervention. NICE Technology Appraisal Guidance 182 [Online] NICE 2009. Available at http://www.nice.org.uk/nicemedia/live/12324/45849/45849.pdf[last accessed 12 April 2011].
  • 51
    Husted S, van Giezen JJ. Ticagrelor: the first reversibly binding oral P2Y12 receptor antagonist. Cardiovasc Ther 2009; 27: 25974.
  • 52
    van Giezen JJ, Nilsson L, Berntsson P, Wissing BM, Giordanetto F, Tomlinson W, Greasley PJ. Ticagrelor binds to P2Y12 receptors independently from ADP but antagonizes ADP-induced receptor signalling and platelet aggregation. J Thromb Haemost 2009; 7: 155665.
  • 53
    Kowalczyk M, Banach M, Mikhailidis DP, Hannam S, Rysz J. Ticagrelor – a new platelet aggregation inhibitor in patients with acute coronary syndromes. An improvement of other inhibitors? Med Sci Monit 2009; 15: MS2430.
  • 54
    Wallentin L, James S, Storey RF, Armstrong M, Barratt BJ, Horrow J, Husted S, Katus H, Steg PG, Shah SH, Becker RC, PLATO investigators. Effect of CYP2C19 and ABCB1 single nucleotide polymorphisms on outcomes of treatment with ticagrelor versus clopidogrel for acute coronary syndromes: a genetic substudy of the PLATO trial. Lancet 2010; 376: 13208.
  • 55
    Teng R, Butler K. Pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, tolerability and safety of single ascending doses of ticagrelor, a reversibly binding oral P2Y(12) receptor antagonist, in healthy subjects. Eur J Clin Pharmacol 2010; 66: 48796.
  • 56
    Gurbel PA, Bliden KP, Butler K, Tantry US, Gesheff T, Wei C, Teng R, Antonino MJ, Patil SB, Karunakaran A, Kereiakes DJ, Parris C, Purdy D, Wilson V, Ledley GS, Storey RF. Randomized double-blind assessment of the ONSET and OFFSET of the antiplatelet effects of ticagrelor versus clopidogrel in patients with stable coronary artery disease: the ONSET/OFFSET study. Circulation 2009; 120: 257785.
  • 57
    Butler K, Teng R. Pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, and safety of ticagrelor in volunteers with mild hepatic impairment. J Clin Pharmacol 2010; [Epub ahead of print] doi: 10.1177/0091270010379409.
  • 58
    Nawarskas JJ, Clark SM. Ticagrelor: a novel reversible oral antiplatelet agent. Cardiol Rev 2011; 19: 95100.
  • 59
    Wallentin L, Becker RC, Budaj A, Cannon CP, Emanuelsson H, Held C, Horrow J, Husted S, James S, Katus H, Mahaffey KW, Scirica BM, Skene A, Steg PG, Storey RF, Harrington RA, PLATO Investigators, Freij A, Thorsén M. Ticagrelor versus clopidogrel in patients with acute coronary syndromes. N Engl J Med 2009; 361: 104557.
  • 60
    Rao AK, Pratt C, Berke A, Jaffe A, Ockene I, Schreiber TL, Bell WR, Knatterud G, Robertson TL, Terrin ML. Thrombolysis in Myocardial Infarction (TIMI) Trial-phase I: hemorrhagic manifestations and changes in plasma fibrinogen and the fibrinolytic system in patients treated with recombinant tissue plasminogen activator and streptokinase. J Am Coll Cardiol 1988; 11: 111.
  • 61
    Storey RF, Angiolillo DJ, Patil SB, Desai B, Ecob R, Husted S, Emanuelsson H, Cannon CP, Becker RC, Wallentin L. Inhibitory effects of ticagrelor compared with clopidogrel on platelet function in patients with acute coronary syndromes: the PLATO (PLATelet inhibition and patient Outcomes) PLATELET substudy. J Am Coll Cardiol 2010; 56: 145662.
  • 62
    Iyú D, Glenn JR, White AE, Fox SC, Dovlatova N, Heptinstall S. P2Y12 and EP3 antagonists promote the inhibitory effects of natural modulators of platelet aggregation that act via cAMP. Platelets 2011; [Epub ahead of print] doi:10.3109/09537104.2011.576284.
  • 63
    European Medicines Agency Summary of Opinion. Ticagleror [Online] EMA/536945/2010. Available at http://www.ema.europa.eu/docs/en_GB/document_library/Summary_of_opinion_-_Initial_authorisation/human/001241/WC500097028.pdf[last accessed 12 April 2011].
  • 64
    Ingall AH, Dixon J, Bailey A, Coombs ME, Cox D, McInally JI, Hunt SF, Kindon ND, Teobald BJ, Willis PA, Humphries RG, Leff P, Clegg JA, Smith JA, Tomlinson W. Antagonists of the platelet P2T receptor: a novel approach to antithrombotic therapy. J Med Chem 1999; 42: 21320.
  • 65
    Storey RF, Oldroyd KG, Wilcox RG. Open multicentre study of the P2T receptor antagonist ARC69931MX assessing safety, tolerability and activity in patients with acute coronary syndromes. Thromb Haemost 2001; 85: 4017.
  • 66
    Ueno M, Ferreiro JL, Angiolillo DJ. Update on the clinical development of cangrelor. Expert Rev Cardiovasc Ther 2010; 8: 106977.
  • 67
    Steinhubl SR, Oh JJ, Oestreich JH, Ferraris S, Charnigo R, Akers WS. Transitioning patients from cangrelor to clopidogrel: pharmacodynamic evidence of a competitive effect. Thromb Res 2008; 121: 52734.
  • 68
    Dovlatova NL, Jakubowski JA, Sugidachi A, Heptinstall S. The reversible P2Y antagonist cangrelor influences the ability of the active metabolites of clopidogrel and prasugrel to produce irreversible inhibition of platelet function. J Thromb Haemost 2008; 6: 11539.
  • 69
    Bhatt DL, Lincoff AM, Gibson CM, Stone GW, McNulty S, Montalescot G, Kleiman NS, Goodman SG, White HD, Mahaffey KW, Pollack CV Jr, Manoukian SV, Widimsky P, Chew DP, Cura F, Manukov I, Tousek F, Jafar MZ, Arneja J, Skerjanec S, Harrington RA, CHAMPION PLATFORM Investigators. Intravenous platelet blockade with cangrelor during PCI. N Engl J Med 2009; 361: 233041.
  • 70
    Harrington RA, Stone GW, McNulty S, White HD, Lincoff AM, Gibson CM, Pollack CV Jr, Montalescot G, Mahaffey KW, Kleiman NS, Goodman SG, Amine M, Angiolillo DJ, Becker RC, Chew DP, French WJ, Leisch F, Parikh KH, Skerjanec S, Bhatt DL. Platelet inhibition with cangrelor in patients undergoing PCI. N Engl J Med 2009; 361: 231829.
  • 71
    US National Institute of Health. A Clinical Trial Comparing Cangrelor to Clopidogrel Standard Therapy in Subjects Who Require Percutaneous Coronary Intervention (PCI) (CHAMPION PHOENIX) [Online] Clinicaltrials.gov 2010. Available at http://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT01156571[last Accessed 12 April 2011].
  • 72
    Oestreich JH. Elinogrel, a reversible P2Y12 receptor antagonist for the treatment of acute coronary syndrome and prevention of secondary thrombotic events. Curr Opin Investig Drugs 2010; 11: 3408.
  • 73
    Ueno M, Rao SV, Angiolillo DJ. Elinogrel: pharmacological principles, preclinical and early phase clinical testing. Future Cardiol 2010; 6: 44553.
  • 74
    Rao SV, Zeymer U, Thompson V, Huber K, Kochman J, McClure MW, Gretler DD, Bhatt DL, Gibson CM, Madan M, Berdan L, Paynter G, Leonardi S, Harrington R, Welsh R. INNOVATE PCI: a Phase II Safety and Efficacy Study of PRT060128 (Elinogrel), a Novel Intravenous and Oral P2Y12 Inhibitor, in Non-Urgent PCI. In: ESC (European Society of Cardiology), ESC Congress 2010, Stockholm, Sweden 28 Aug – 1 Sep 2010.
  • 75
    Kim S, Kunapuli SP. P2Y12 receptor in platelet activation. Platelets 2011; 22: 548.
  • 76
    Heptinstall S, Johnson A, Glenn JR, White AE. Adenine nucleotide metabolism in human blood – important roles for leukocytes and erythrocytes. J Thromb Haemost 2005; 3: 23319.
  • 77
    Jones S, Evans RJ, Mahaut-Smith MP. Extracellular Ca(2+) modulates ADP-evoked aggregation through altered agonist degradation: implications for conditions used to study P2Y receptor activation. Br J Haematol 2011; 153: 8391.
  • 78
    Iyú D, Glenn JR, White AE, Fox SC, Heptinstall S. Adenosine derived from ADP can contribute to inhibition of platelet aggregation in the presence of a P2Y12 antagonist. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 2011; 31: 41622.
  • 79
    Bjorkman JA, Kirk I, van Giezen JJ. AZD6140 inhibits adenosine uptake into erythrocytes and enhances coronary blood flow after local ischemia or intracoronary adenosine infusion. Circulation 2007; 116 (Suppl.): II-28. [Abstract 245].
  • 80
    Storey RF, Bliden KP, Patil SB, Karunakaran A, Ecob R, Butler K, Teng R, Wei C, Tantry US, Gurbel PA. ONSET/OFFSET Investigators. Incidence of dyspnea and assessment of cardiac and pulmonary function in patients with stable coronary artery disease receiving ticagrelor, clopidogrel, or placebo in the ONSET/OFFSET study. J Am Coll Cardiol 2010; 56: 18593.
  • 81
    Fox SC, Behan MW, Heptinstall S. Inhibition of ADP-induced intracellular Ca2+ responses and platelet aggregation by the P2Y12 receptor antagonists AR-C69931MX and clopidogrel is enhanced by prostaglandin E1. Cell Calcium 2004; 35: 3946.
  • 82
    Cattaneo M, Lecchi A. Inhibition of P2Y12 receptor by adenosine diphosphate potentiates the antiplatelet effects of prostacyclin. J Thromb Haemost 2007; 5: 57782.
  • 83
    Heptinstall S, Espinosa DI, Manolopoulos P, Glenn JR, White AE, Johnson A, Dovlatova N, Fox SC, May JA, Hermann D, Magnusson O, Stefansson K, Hartman D, Gurney M. DG-041 inhibits the EP3 prostanoid receptor: a new target for inhibition of platelet function in atherothrombotic disease. Platelets 2008; 19: 60513.
  • 84
    Singh J, Zeller W, Zhou N, Hategen G, Mishra R, Polozov A, Yu P, Onua E, Zhang J, Zembower D, Kiselyov A, Ramírez JL, Sigthorsson G, Bjornsson JM, Thorsteinsdottir M, Andrésson T, Bjarnadottir M, Magnusson O, Fabre JE, Stefansson K, Gurney ME. Antagonists of the EP3 receptor for prostaglandin E2 are novel antiplatelet agents that do not prolong bleeding. ACS Chem Biol 2009; 4: 11526.
  • 85
    Fabre JE, Gurney ME. Limitations of current therapies to prevent thrombosis: a need for novel strategies. Mol Biosyst 2010; 6: 30515.
  • 86
    Dohlman HG, Thorner J, Caron MG, Lefkowitz RJ. Model systems for the study of seven-transmembrane-segment receptors. Annu Rev Biochem 1991; 60: 65388.
  • 87
    Iyú D, Glenn JR, White AE, Fox SC, van Giezen H, Nylander S, Heptinstall S. Mode of action of P2Y(12) antagonists as inhibitors of platelet function. Thromb Haemost 2011; 105: 96106.
  • 88
    Srinivasan S, Mir F, Huang JS, Khasawneh FT, Lam SC, Le Breton GC. The P2Y12 antagonists, 2-methylthioadenosine 5′-monophosphate triethylammonium salt and cangrelor (ARC69931MX), can inhibit human platelet aggregation through a Gi-independent increase in cAMP levels. J Biol Chem 2009; 284: 1610817.