SEARCH

SEARCH BY CITATION

REFERENCES

  • 1
    Trussell J. The cost of unintended pregnancy in the United States. Contraception 2007; 75: 16870.
  • 2
    Dinger J, Minh TD, Buttmann N, Bardenheuer K. Effectiveness of oral contraceptive pills in a large U.S. cohort comparing progestogen and regimen. Obstet Gynecol 2011; 117: 3340.
  • 3
    Farmer RD, Lawrenson R. Utilization patterns of oral contraceptives in UK general practice. Contraception 1996; 53: 2115.
  • 4
    Seaman HE, de Vries CS, Farmer RD. Differences in the use of combined oral contraceptives amongst women with and without acne. Hum Reprod 2003; 18: 51521.
  • 5
    Stanczyk FZ, Roy S. Metabolism of levonorgestrel, norethindrone, and structurally related contraceptive steroids. Contraception 1990; 42: 6796.
  • 6
    Zhang H, Cui D, Wang B, Han YH, Balimane P, Yang Z, Sinz M, Rodrigues AD. Pharmacokinetic drug interactions involving 17alpha-ethinylestradiol: a new look at an old drug. Clin Pharmacokinet 2007; 46: 13357.
  • 7
    Ellison J, Thomson AJ, Greer IA, Walker ID. Drug points: apparent interaction between warfarin and levonorgestrel used for emergency contraception. BMJ 2000; 321: 1382.
  • 8
    Johnson EF, Schwab GE, Vickery LE. Positive effectors of the binding of an active site-directed amino steroid to rabbit cytochrome P-450 3c. J Biol Chem 1988; 263: 176727.
  • 9
    Laine K, Yasar U, Widen J, Tybring G. A screening study on the liability of eight different female sex steroids to inhibit CYP2C9, 2C19 and 3A4 activities in human liver microsomes. Pharmacol Toxicol 2003; 93: 7781.
  • 10
    Lin HL, Kent UM, Hollenberg PF. Mechanism-based inactivation of cytochrome P450 3A4 by 17 alpha-ethynylestradiol: evidence for heme destruction and covalent binding to protein. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 2002; 301: 1607.
  • 11
    Heilbronn LK, Campbell LV. Adipose tissue macrophages, low grade inflammation and insulin resistance in human obesity. Curr Pharm Des 2008; 14: 122530.
  • 12
    Cheng PY, Morgan ET. Hepatic cytochrome P450 regulation in disease states. Curr Drug Metab 2001; 2: 16583.
  • 13
    Greenblatt DJ, Abernethy DR, Locniskar A, Harmatz JS, Limjuco RA, Shader RI. Effect of age, gender, and obesity on midazolam kinetics. Anesthesiology 1984; 61: 2735.
  • 14
    Holt VL, Scholes D, Wicklund KG, Cushing-Haugen KL, Daling JR. Body mass index, weight, and oral contraceptive failure risk. Obstet Gynecol 2005; 105: 4652.
  • 15
    Mojtabai R. Body mass index and serum folate in childbearing age women. Eur J Epidemiol 2004; 19: 102936.
  • 16
    Vahratian A. Prevalence of overweight and obesity among women of childbearing age: results from the 2002 National Survey of Family Growth. Matern Child Health J 2009; 13: 26873.
  • 17
    Trussell J. Understanding contraceptive failure. Best Pract Res Clin Obstet Gynaecol 2009; 23: 199209.
  • 18
    Trussell J, Schwarz EB, Guthrie K. Obesity and oral contraceptive pill failure. Contraception 2009; 79: 3348.
  • 19
    Zhang S, Song N, Li Q, Fan H, Liu C. Liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry method for simultaneous evaluation of activities of five cytochrome P450s using a five-drug cocktail and application to cytochrome P450 phenotyping studies in rats. J Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci 2008; 871: 7889.
  • 20
    Hebert MF, Easterling TR, Kirby B, Carr DB, Buchanan ML, Rutherford T, Thummel KE, Fishbein DP, Unadkat JD. Effects of pregnancy on CYP3A and P-glycoprotein activities as measured by disposition of midazolam and digoxin: a University of Washington specialized center of research study. Clin Pharmacol Ther 2008; 84: 24853.
  • 21
    Balogh A, Gessinger S, Svarovsky U, Hippius M, Mellinger U, Klinger G, Hoffmann A, Oettel M. Can oral contraceptive steroids influence the elimination of nifedipine and its primary pryidine metabolite in humans? Eur J Clin Pharmacol 1998; 54: 72934.
  • 22
    Palovaara S, Kivisto KT, Tapanainen P, Manninen P, Neuvonen PJ, Laine K. Effect of an oral contraceptive preparation containing ethinylestradiol and gestodene on CYP3A4 activity as measured by midazolam 1′-hydroxylation. Br J Clin Pharmacol 2000; 50: 3337.
  • 23
    Rogers JF, Rocci ML, Jr, Haughey DB, Bertino JS, Jr. An evaluation of the suitability of intravenous midazolam as an in vivo marker for hepatic cytochrome P4503A activity. Clin Pharmacol Ther 2003; 73: 1538.
  • 24
    Ahmed SB, Kang AK, Burns KD, Kennedy CR, Lai V, Cattran DC, Scholey JW, Miller JA. Effects of oral contraceptive use on the renal and systemic vascular response to angiotensin II infusion. J Am Soc Nephrol 2004; 15: 7806.
  • 25
    Reves JG, Newfield P, Smith LR. Influence of serum protein, serum albumin concentrations and dose on midazolam anaesthesia induction times. Can Anaesth Soc J 1981; 28: 55660.
  • 26
    Carlstrom K, Karlsson R, Von Schoultz B. Diurnal rhythm and effects of oral contraceptives on serum dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS) are related to alterations in serum albumin rather than to changes in adrenocortical steroid secretion. Scand J Clin Lab Invest 2002; 62: 3618.
  • 27
    Horne CH, Weir RJ, Howie PW, Goudie RB. Effect of combined oestrogen-progestogen oral contraceptives on serum levels of alpha 2-macroglobulin, transferrin, albumin and IgG. Lancet 1970; 1: 4950.
  • 28
    Obisesan KA, Adenaike FA, Okunlola MA, Adenaike AA. Effects of oral contraceptives on total serum proteins, albumin, globulins and cholesterol levels in Ibadan, Nigeria. West Afr J Med 2002; 21: 1979.
  • 29
    Khan SN, Islam B, Khan AU. Probing midazolam interaction with human serum albumin and its effect on structural state of protein. Int J Integr Biol 2007; 1: 10212.
  • 30
    Sims ST, Rehrer NJ, Bell ML, Cotter JD. Endogenous and exogenous female sex hormones and renal electrolyte handling: effects of an acute sodium load on plasma volume at rest. J Appl Physiol 2008; 105: 1217.
  • 31
    Abernethy DR, Greenblatt DJ, Divoll M, Smith RB, Shader RI. The influence of obesity on the pharmacokinetics of oral alprazolam and triazolam. Clin Pharmacokinet 1984; 9: 17783.