Integration of clinical and preclinical pharmacology in pharmaceutical companies could be improved by several key recommendations:

Companies should ensure that there is an adequate pool of trained clinical pharmacologists and preclinical pharmacologists. Training should include topics that allow clinical pharmacologists to be cognizant of the methods, issues and challenges faced by the preclinical pharmacologists and vice versa.

Companies should incentivize such integration internally by aligning objectives and metrics/incentives.

In academic medicine and the NHS there should be support for involvement of clinical pharmacologists in basic academic research and industrial R & D and new ways of facilitating and incentivizing preclinical pharmacologists and clinical pharmacologists to move between these various environments should be sought.