Pharmacoeconomics is an essential component of health technology assessment and the appraisal of medicines for use by UK National Health Service (NHS) patients. As a comparatively young discipline, its methods continue to evolve. Priority research areas for development include methods for synthesizing indirect comparisons when head-to-head trials have not been performed, synthesizing qualitative evidence (for example, stakeholder views), addressing the limitations of the EQ-5D tool for assessing quality of life, including benefits not captured in quality-adjusted life years (QALYs), ways of assessing valuation methods (for determining utility scores), extrapolation of costs and benefits beyond those observed in trials, early estimation of cost-effectiveness (including mechanism-based economic evaluation), methods for incorporating the impact of non-adherence and the role of behavioural economics in influencing patients and prescribers.