• 1
    Abdool Karim Q, Abdool Karim SS, Frohlich JA, Grobler AC, Baxter C, Mansoor LE, Kharsany AB, Sibeko S, Mlisana KP, Omar Z, Gengiah TN, Maarschalk S, Arulappan N, Mlotshwa M, Morris L, Taylor D. Effectiveness and safety of tenofovir gel, an antiretroviral microbicide, for the prevention of HIV infection in women. Science 2010; 329: 116874.
  • 2
    MTN Statement on Decision to Discontinue Use of Tenofovir Gel in VOICE, a Major HIV Prevention Study in Women. Pittsburgh, November 25, 2011. Available at (last accessed 6 February 2012).
  • 3
    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. HIV Infection – United States, 2005 and 2008. MMWR Surveill Summ 2011; 60: (Suppl.): 879.
  • 4
    Koblin BA, Husnik MJ, Colfax G, Huang Y, Madison M, Mayer K, Barresi PJ, Coates TJ, Chesney MA, Buchbinder S. Risk factors for HIV infection among men who have sex with men. AIDS 2006; 20: 7319.
  • 5
    Misegades L, Page-Shafer K, Halperin D, McFarland W. Anal intercourse among young low-income women in California: an overlooked risk factor for HIV? AIDS 2001; 15: 5345.
  • 6
    Baldwin JI, Baldwin JD. Heterosexual anal intercourse: an understudied, high-risk sexual behavior. Arch Sex Behav 2000; 29: 35773.
  • 7
    Erickson PI, Bastani R, Maxwell AE, Marcus AC, Capell FJ, Yan KX. Prevalence of anal sex among heterosexuals in California and its relationship to other AIDS risk behaviors. AIDS Educ Prev 1995; 7: 47793.
  • 8
    McGowan I. Rectal microbicides: can we make them and will people use them? AIDS Behav 2011; 15: (Suppl. 1): S6671.
  • 9
    Hendrix CW, Fuchs EJ, Macura KJ, Lee LA, Parsons TL, Bakshi RP, Khan WA, Guidos A, Leal JP, Wahl R. Quantitative imaging and sigmoidoscopy to assess distribution of rectal microbicide surrogates. Clin Pharmacol Ther 2008; 83: 97105.
  • 10
    Hylton J, Fuchs E, Hendrix CW. An assessment of sexual practices affecting the feasibility of microbicide development among MSM. In Microbicides 2004 London (2004); Abstract 2667.
  • 11
    Development Core Team. A Language and Environment for Statistical Computing. Vienna: Foundation for Statistical Computing, 2011.
  • 12
    Du Y, Tsui BMW, Frey EC. Model-based crosstalk compensation for simultaneous 99mTc/123I dual-isotope brain SPECT imaging. Med Phys 2007; 34: 353043.
  • 13
    Frey EC, Tsui BMW. A new method for modeling the spatially-variant, object-dependent scatter response function in SPECT. IEEE NUCL SCI SYMP 1996; 2: 108286.
  • 14
    Du Y, Frey EC. Model-based downscatter compensation for simultaneous Tc-99m/In-111 dual-isotope SPECT imaging. 2008 SNM Annual Meeting, June, New Orleans, LA. J Nucl Med 2008; 49: 152P.
  • 15
    Caffo BS, Crainiceanu CM, Deng L, Hendrix CW. A case study in pharmacologic colon imaging using principal curves in single photon emission computed tomography. J Am Stat Assoc 2008; 103: 147080.
  • 16
    Louissaint NA, Nimmagadda S, Fuchs EJ, Bakshi RP, Cao Y, Lee LA, Goldsmith J, Caffo BS, Du Y, King KE, Menendez FA, Torbenson MS, Hendrix CW. Distribution of cell-free and cell-associated HIV surrogates in the colon following simulated receptive anal intercourse in men. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 2012; 59: 107.
  • 17
    Louissaint NA, Fuchs EJ, Bakshi RP, Nimmagadda S, Du Y, Macura K, King KE, Goldsmith AJ, Caffo B, Cao Y, Anderson JR, Hendrix CW. Distribution of cell-free and cell-associated HIV surrogates in the female genital tract following simulated vaginal intercourse. J Infect Dis 2012; 205: 72532.
  • 18
    Sheiner LB, Stanski DR, Vozeh S, Miller RD, Ham J. Simultaneous modeling of pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics: application to d-tubocurarine. Clin Pharmacol Ther 1979; 25: 35871.