• 1
    Semeraro F, Parrinello G, Cancarini A, Pasquini L, Zarra E, Cimino A, Cancarini G, Valentini U, Costagliola C. Predicting the risk of diabetic retinopathy in type 2 diabetic patients. J Diabetes Complications 2011; 25: 2927.
  • 2
    Tranos PG, Wickremasinghe SS, Stangos NT, Topouzis F, Tsinopoulos I, Pavesio CE. Macular oedema. Surv Ophthalmol 2004; 49: 47090.
  • 3
    Cai J, Boulton M. The pathogenesis of diabetic retinopathy: old concepts and new questions. Eye 2002; 16: 24260.
  • 4
    Caldwell RB, Bartoli M, Behzadian MA, El-Remessy AE, Al-Shabrawey M, Platt DH, Caldwell RW. Vascular endothelial growth factor and diabetic retinopathy: pathophysiological mechanisms and treatment perspectives. Diabetes Metab Res Rev 2003; 19: 44255.
  • 5
    Schartman JP, Coney JM, Hornik JH, Miller DG. Pegaptanib octasodium for the treatment of diabetic macular oedema. Expert Opin Pharmacother 2011; 12: 131723.
  • 6
    Funatsu H, Noma H, Mimura T, Eguchi S, Hori S. Association of vitreous inflammatory factors with diabetic macular oedema. Ophthalmology 2009; 116: 739.
  • 7
    Usui T, Ishida S, Yamashiro K, Kaji Y, Poulaki V, Moore J, Moore T, Amano S, Horikawa Y, Dartt D, Golding M, Shima DT, Adamis AP. VEGF164(165) as the pathological isoform: differential leukocyte and endothelial responses throughVEGFR1 and VEGFR2. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 2004; 45: 36874.
  • 8
    Gragoudas ES, Adamis AP, Cunningham ET Jr, Feinsod M, Guyer DR, VEGF Inhibition Study in Ocular Neovascularization Clinical Trial Group. Pegaptanib for neovascular age-related macular degeneration. N Engl J Med 2004; 351: 280516.
  • 9
    Adamis AP, Altaweel M, Bressler NM, Cunningham ET Jr, Davis MD, Goldbaum M, Gonzales C, Guyer DR, Barrett K, Patel M, Macugen Diabetic Retinopathy Study Group. Changes in retinal neovascularization after pegaptanib (Macugen) therapy in diabetic individuals. Ophthalmology 2006; 113: 238.
  • 10
    Sultan MB, Zhou D, Loftus J, Dombi T, Ice KS, Macugen 1013 Study Group. A phase 2/3, multicenter, randomized, double-masked, 2-year trial of pegaptanib sodium for the treatment of diabetic macular oedema. Ophthalmology 2011; 118: 110718.
  • 11
    Soliman W, Hasler P, Sander B, Larsen M. Local retinal sensitivity in relation to specific retinopathy lesions in diabetic macular oedema. Acta Ophthalmol 2010; 90: 24853.
  • 12
    Iturralde D, Spaide RF, Meyerle CB, Klancnik JM, Yannuzzi LA, Fisher YL, Sorenson J, Slakter JS, Freund KB, Cooney M, Fine HF. Intravitreal bevacizumab (Avastin) treatment of macular oedema in central retinal vein occlusion: a short-term study. Retina 2006; 26: 27984.
  • 13
    Arevalo JF, Sanchez JG, Lasave AF, Wu L, Maia M, Bonafonte S, Brito M, Alezzandrini AA, Restrepo N, Berrocal MH, Saravia M, Farah ME, Fromow-Guerra J, Morales-Canton V, Pan-American Collaborative Retina Study Group (PACORES). Intravitreal bevacizumab (Avastin®) for diabetic retinopathy at 24-months: the 2008 Juan Verdaguer-Planas Lecture. Curr Diabetes Rev 2010; 6: 31322.
  • 14
    Mitchell P. A systematic review of the efficacy and safety outcomes of anti-VEGF agents used for treating neovascular age-related macular degeneration: comparison of ranibizumab and bevacizumab. Curr Med Res Opin 2011; 27: 146575.
  • 15
    Semeraro F, Morescalchi F, Parmeggiani F, Arcidiacono B, Costagliola C. Systemic adverse drug reactions secondary to anti-VEGF intravitreal injection in patients with neovascular age-related macular degeneration. Curr Vasc Pharmacol 2011; 9: 62946.
  • 16
    Waisbourd M, Goldstein M, Loewenstein A. Treatment of diabetic retinopathy with anti-VEGF drugs. Acta Ophthalmol 2011; 89: 2037.
  • 17
    Nguyen QD, Shah SM, Khwaja AA, Channa R, Hatef E, Do DV, Boyer D, Heier JS, Abraham P, Thach AB, Lit ES, Foster BS, Kruger E, Dugel P, Chang T, Das A, Ciulla TA, Pollack JS, Lim JI, Eliott D, Campochiaro PA, READ-2 Study Group. Two-year outcomes of the ranibizumab for oedema of the macula in diabetes (READ-2) study. Ophthalmology 2010; 117: 214651.
  • 18
    Diabetic Retinopathy Clinical Research Network, Elman MJ, Aiello LP, Beck RW, Bressler NM, Bressler SB, Edwards AR, Ferris FL 3rd, Friedman SM, Glassman AR, Miller KM, Scott IU, Stockdale CR, Sun JK. Randomized trial evaluating ranibizumab plus prompt or deferred laser or triamcinolone plus prompt laser for diabetic macular oedema. Ophthalmology 2010; 117: 106477.
  • 19
    Michaelides M, Kaines A, Hamilton RD, Fraser-Bell S, Rajendram R, Quhill F, Boos CJ, Xing W, Egan C, Peto T, Bunce C, Leslie RD, Hykin PG. A prospective randomized trial of intravitreal bevacizumab or laser therapy in the management of diabetic macular oedema (BOLT study) 12-month data: report 2. Ophthalmology 2010; 117: 107886.
  • 20
    Massin P, Bandello F, Garweg JG, Hansen LL, Harding SP, Larsen M, Mitchell P, Sharp D, Wolf-Schnurrbusch UE, Gekkieva M, Weichselberger A, Wolf S. Safety and efficacy of ranibizumab in diabetic macular oedema (RESOLVE Study): a 12-month, randomized, controlled, double-masked, multicenter phase II study. Diabetes Care 2010; 33: 2399405.
  • 21
    Hatef E, Colantuoni E, Wang J, Ibrahim M, Shulman M, Adhi F, Sepah YJ, Channa R, Khwaja A, Nguyen QD, Do DV. The relationship between macular sensitivity and retinal thickness in eyes with diabetic macular oedema. Am J Ophthalmol 2011; 152: 4005.
  • 22
    Vujosevic S, Casciano M, Pilotto E, Boccassini B, Varano M, Midena E. Diabetic macular oedema: fundus autofluorescence and functional correlations. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 2011; 52: 4428.
  • 23
    Deák GG, Bolz M, Ritter M, Prager S, Benesch T, Schmidt-Erfurth U, Diabetic Retinopathy Research Group Vienna. A systematic correlation between morphology and functional alterations in diabetic macular oedema. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 2010; 51: 67104.
  • 24
    Barton FB, Fong DS, Knatterud GL, ETDRS Research Group. Classification of Farnsworth-Munsell 100-hue test results in the early treatment diabetic retinopathy study. Am J Ophthalmol 2004; 138: 11924.