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REFERENCES

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    Benowitz NL, Jacob P, 3rd. Nicotine and cotinine elimination pharmacokinetics in smokers and nonsmokers. Clin Pharmacol Ther 1993; 53: 31623.
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    Haley NJ, Sepkovic DW, Hoffmann D. Elimination of cotinine from body fluids: disposition in smokers and nonsmokers. Am J Public Health 1989; 79: 10468.
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    Hukkanen J, Jacob P, 3rd, Benowitz NL. Metabolism and disposition kinetics of nicotine. Pharmacol Rev 2005; 57: 79115.
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    Tyndale RF, Sellers EM. Genetic variation in CYP2A6-mediated nicotine metabolism alters smoking behavior. Ther Drug Monit 2002; 24: 16371.
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    Benowitz NL, Swan GE, Jacob P, 3rd, Lessov-Schlaggar CN, Tyndale RF. CYP2A6 genotype and the metabolism and disposition kinetics of nicotine. Clin Pharmacol Ther 2006; 80: 45767.
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    Mwenifumbo JC, Tyndale RF. Molecular genetics of nicotine metabolism. Handb Exp Pharmacol 2009; 192: 23559.
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    Jacob P, 3rd, Yu L, Wilson M, Benowitz NL. Selected ion monitoring method for determination of nicotine, cotinine and deuterium-labeled analogs: absence of an isotope effect in the clearance of (S)-nicotine-3′,3′-d2 in humans. Biol Mass Spectrom 1991; 20: 24752.
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    Jacob P, 3rd, Yu L, Duan M, Ramos L, Yturralde O, Benowitz NL. Determination of the nicotine metabolites cotinine and trans-3′-hydroxycotinine in biologic fluids of smokers and non-smokers using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry: biomarkers for tobacco smoke exposure and for phenotyping cytochrome P450 2A6 activity. J Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci 2011; 879: 26776.
  • 10
    Mwenifumbo JC, Zhou Q, Benowitz NL, Sellers EM, Tyndale RF. New CYP2A6 gene deletion and conversion variants in a population of Black African descent. Pharmacogenomics 2010; 11: 18998.
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    Ho MK, Mwenifumbo JC, Al Koudsi N, Okuyemi KS, Ahluwalia JS, Benowitz NL, Tyndale RF. Association of nicotine metabolite ratio and CYP2A6 genotype with smoking cessation treatment in African-American light smokers. Clin Pharmacol Ther 2009; 85: 63543.
  • 12
    Mwenifumbo JC, Myers MG, Wall TL, Lin SK, Sellers EM, Tyndale RF. Ethnic variation in CYP2A6*7, CYP2A6*8 and CYP2A6*10 as assessed with a novel haplotyping method. Pharmacogenet Genomics 2005; 15: 18992.