SEARCH

SEARCH BY CITATION

References

  • 1
    WHO. The Global Burden of Disease: 2004 Update. Geneva: World Health Organization, 2008.
  • 2
    WHO. Psychoactive Substance Use: Epidemiology and Burden of Disease. Atlas on Substance Use (2010): Resources for the Prevention and Treatment of Substance Use Disorders. Geneva: WHO Press, 2010; 712.
  • 3
    Harwood H. The Economic Costs of Drug Abuse in the United States: 1992–2002. Washington, DC: The Lewin Group for the Office of National Drug Control Policy, Policy OoNDC, 2004; Contract No.: 207303.
  • 4
    Andlin-Sobocki P, Rehm J. Cost of addiction in Europe. Eur J Neurol [Comparative Study]. 2005; 12: (Suppl. 1): 2833.
  • 5
    Saitz R, Larson MJ, Labelle C, Richardson J, Samet JH. The case for chronic disease management for addiction. J Addict Med 2008; 2: 5565.
  • 6
    Hill KP, Sofuoglu M. Biological treatments for amfetamine dependence : recent progress. CNS Drugs 2007; 21: 851869.
  • 7
    Sofuoglu M, Kosten TR. Emerging pharmacological strategies in the fight against cocaine addiction. Expert Opin Emerg Drugs 2006; 11: 9198.
  • 8
    Everitt BJ, Dickinson A, Robbins TW. The neuropsychological basis of addictive behaviour. Brain Res Brain Res Rev [Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't Review]. 2001; 36: 129138.
  • 9
    Hyman SE. Addiction: a disease of learning and memory. Am J Psychiatry 2005; 162: 14141422.
  • 10
    Koob GF. Neurobiology of addiction. Toward the development of new therapies. Ann N Y Acad Sci 2000; 909: 170185.
  • 11
    Koob GF, Ahmed SH, Boutrel B, Chen SA, Kenny PJ, Markou A, O'Dell LE, Parsons LH, Sanna PP. Neurobiological mechanisms in the transition from drug use to drug dependence. Neurosci Biobehav Rev 2004; 27: 739749.
  • 12
    Koob GF, Nestler EJ. The neurobiology of drug addiction. J Neuropsychiatry Clin Neurosci 1997; 9: 482497.
  • 13
    Sofuoglu M. Cognitive enhancement as a pharmacotherapy target for stimulant addiction. Addiction 2010; 105: 3848.
  • 14
    Edens E, Massa A, Petrakis I. Novel pharmacological approaches to drug abuse treatment. Curr Top Behav Neurosci 2010; 3: 343386.
  • 15
    Ross S, Peselow E. Pharmacotherapy of addictive disorders. Clin Neuropharmacol 2009; 32: 277289.
  • 16
    Dalley JW, Everitt BJ. Dopamine receptors in the learning, memory and drug reward circuitry. Semin Cell Dev Biol 2009; 20: 403410.
  • 17
    Schultz W. Dopamine signals for reward value and risk: basic and recent data. Behav Brain Funct 2010; 6: 2433.
  • 18
    Lajtha A, Sershen H. Heterogeneity of reward mechanisms. Neurochem Res 2010; 35: 851867.
  • 19
    Leyton M, Boileau I, Benkelfat C, Diksic M, Baker G, Dagher A. Amphetamine-induced increases in extracellular dopamine, drug wanting, and novelty seeking: a PET/[11C]raclopride study in healthy men. Neuropsychopharmacology 2002; 27: 10271035.
  • 20
    Robinson TE, Berridge KC. The neural basis of drug craving: an incentive-sensitization theory of addiction. Brain Res Brain Res Rev 1993; 18: 247291.
  • 21
    Berridge KC, Robinson TE, Aldridge JW. Dissecting components of reward: ‘liking’, ‘wanting’, and learning. Curr Opin Pharmacol 2009; 9: 6573.
  • 22
    Horder J, Harmer CJ, Cowen PJ, McCabe C. Reduced neural response to reward following 7 days treatment with the cannabinoid CB(1) antagonist rimonabant in healthy volunteers. Int J Neuropsychopharmacol 2010; 13: 11031113.
  • 23
    Pérez-Mañá C, Castells X, Vidal X, Casas M, Capellà D. Efficacy of indirect dopamine agonists for psychostimulant dependence: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. J Subst Abuse Treat 2011; 40: 109122.
  • 24
    Herin DV, Rush CR, Grabowski J. Agonist-like pharmacotherapy for stimulant dependence: preclinical, human laboratory, and clinical studies. Ann N Y Acad Sci 2010; 1187: 76100.
  • 25
    Koob GF. Neural mechanisms of drug reinforcement. Ann N Y Acad Sci 1992; 654: 171191.
  • 26
    Martinez D, Narendran R, Foltin RW, Slifstein M, Hwang DR, Broft A, Huang Y, Cooper TB, Fischman MW, Kleber HD, Laruelle M. Amphetamine-induced dopamine release: markedly blunted in cocaine dependence and predictive of the choice to self-administer cocaine. Am J Psychiatry 2007; 164: 622629.
  • 27
    Volkow ND, Chang L, Wang GJ, Fowler JS, Ding YS, Sedler M, Logan J, Franceschi D, Gatley J, Hitzemann R, Gifford A, Wong C, Pappas N. Low level of brain dopamine D2 receptors in methamphetamine abusers: association with metabolism in the orbitofrontal cortex. Am J Psychiatry 2001; 158: 20152021.
  • 28
    Volkow ND, Fowler JS, Wolf AP, Schlyer D, Shiue CY, Alpert R, Dewey SL, Logan J, Bendriem B, Christman D. Effects of chronic cocaine abuse on postsynaptic dopamine receptors. Am J Psychiatry 1990; 147: 719724.
  • 29
    Volkow ND, Wang GJ, Fowler JS, Logan J, Gatley SJ, Hitzemann R, Chen AD, Dewey SL, Pappas N. Decreased striatal dopaminergic responsiveness in detoxified cocaine-dependent subjects. Nature 1997; 386: 830833.
  • 30
    Kahlig KM, Binda F, Khoshbouei H, Blakely RD, McMahon DG, Javitch JA, Galli A. Amphetamine induces dopamine efflux through a dopamine transporter channel. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2005; 102: 34953500.
  • 31
    Sulzer D, Sonders MS, Poulsen NW, Galli A. Mechanisms of neurotransmitter release by amphetamines: a review. Prog Neurobiol 2005; 75: 406433.
  • 32
    Partilla JS, Dempsey AG, Nagpal AS, Blough BE, Baumann MH, Rothman RB. Interaction of amphetamines and related compounds at the vesicular monoamine transporter. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 2006; 319: 237246.
  • 33
    Grabowski J, Rhoades H, Stotts A, Cowan K, Kopecky C, Dougherty A, Moeller FG, Hassan S, Schmitz J. Agonist-like or antagonist-like treatment for cocaine dependence with methadone for heroin dependence: two double-blind randomized clinical trials. Neuropsychopharmacology 2004; 29: 969981.
  • 34
    Shearer J, Wodak A, van Beek I, Mattick RP, Lewis J. Pilot randomized double blind placebo-controlled study of dexamphetamine for cocaine dependence. Addiction 2003; 98: 11371141.
  • 35
    Longo M, Wickes W, Smout M, Harrison S, Cahill S, White JM. Randomized controlled trial of dexamphetamine maintenance for the treatment of methamphetamine dependence. Addiction 2010; 105: 146154.
  • 36
    Shearer J, Wodak A, Mattick RP, Van Beek I, Lewis J, Hall W, Dolan K. Pilot randomized controlled study of dexamphetamine substitution for amphetamine dependence. Addiction 2001; 96: 12891296.
  • 37
    Gawin F, Riordan C, Kleber H. Methylphenidate treatment of cocaine abusers without attention deficit disorder: a negative report. Am J Drug Alcohol Abuse [Case Reports]. 1985; 11: 193197.
  • 38
    Grabowski J, Roache JD, Schmitz JM, Rhoades H, Creson D, Korszun A. Replacement medication for cocaine dependence: methylphenidate. J Clin Psychopharmacol 1997; 17: 485488.
  • 39
    Levin FR, Evans SM, Brooks DJ, Garawi F. Treatment of cocaine dependent treatment seekers with adult ADHD: double-blind comparison of methylphenidate and placebo. Drug Alcohol Depend 2007; 87: 2029.
  • 40
    Schubiner H, Saules KK, Arfken CL, Johanson C-E, Schuster CR, Lockhart N, Edwards A, Donlin J, Pihlgren E. Double-blind placebo-controlled trial of methylphenidate in the treatment of adult ADHD patients with comorbid cocaine dependence. Exp Clin Psychopharmacol 2002; 10: 286294.
  • 41
    Tiihonen J, Kuoppasalmi K, Fohr J, Tuomola P, Kuikanmaki O, Vorma H, Sokero P, Haukka J, Meririnne E. A comparison of aripiprazole, methylphenidate, and placebo for amphetamine dependence. Am J Psychiatry 2007; 164: 160162.
  • 42
    Biederman J, Krishnan S, Zhang Y, McGough JJ, Findling RL. Efficacy and tolerability of lisdexamfetamine dimesylate (NRP-104) in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: a phase III, multicenter, randomized, double-blind, forced-dose, parallel-group study. Clin Ther 2007; 29: 450463.
  • 43
    Jasinski DR, Krishnan S. Human pharmacology of intravenous lisdexamfetamine dimesylate: abuse liability in adult stimulant abusers. J Psychopharmacol 2009; 23: 410418.
  • 44
    Jasinski DR, Krishnan S. Abuse liability and safety of oral lisdexamfetamine dimesylate in individuals with a history of stimulant abuse. J Psychopharmacol 2009; 23: 419427.
  • 45
    Volkow ND, Fowler JS, Logan J, Alexoff D, Zhu W, Telang F, Wang GJ, Jayne M, Hooker JM, Wong C, Hubbard B, Carter P, Warner D, King P, Shea C, Xu Y, Muench L, Apelskog-Torres K. Effects of modafinil on dopamine and dopamine transporters in the male human brain: clinical implications. JAMA 2009; 301: 11481154.
  • 46
    Martinez-Raga J, Knecht C, Cepeda S. Modafinil: a useful medication for cocaine addiction? Review of the evidence from neuropharmacological, experimental and clinical studies. Curr Drug Abuse Rev 2008; 1: 213221.
  • 47
    Dackis CA, Kampman KM, Lynch KG, Pettinati HM. O'Brien CPCINND, author reply P. A double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of modafinil for cocaine dependence. Neuropsychopharmacology 2005; 30: 205211.
  • 48
    McElhiney MC, Rabkin JG, Rabkin R, Nunes EV. Provigil (modafinil) plus cognitive behavioral therapy for methamphetamine use in HIV+ gay men: a pilot study. Am J Drug Alcohol Abuse 2009; 35: 3437.
  • 49
    Shearer J, Darke S, Rodgers C, Slade T, van Beek I, Lewis J, Brady D, McKetin R, Mattick RP, Wodak A. A double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of modafinil (200 mg/day) for methamphetamine dependence. Addiction 2009; 104: 224233.
  • 50
    Anderson AL, Reid MS, Li SH, Holmes T, Shemanski L, Slee A, Smith EV, Kahn R, Chiang N, Vocci F, Ciraulo D, Dackis C, Roache JD, Salloum IM, Somoza E, Urschel HC 3rd, Elkashef AM. Modafinil for the treatment of cocaine dependence. Drug Alcohol Depend 2009; 104: 133139.
  • 51
    Anderson AL, Li S-H, Biswas K, McSherry F, Holmes T, Iturriaga E, Kahn R, Chiang N, Beresford T, Campbell J, Haning W, Mawhinney J, McCann M, Rawson R, Stock C, Weis D, Yu E, Elkashef AM. Modafinil for the treatment of methamphetamine dependence. Drug Alcohol Depend 2012; 120: 135141.
  • 52
    Dackis CA, Kampman KM, Lynch KG, Plebani JG, Pettinati HM, Sparkman T, O'Brien CP. A double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of modafinil for cocaine dependence. J Subst Abuse Treat 2012; 43: 30312.
  • 53
    Arias HR. Is the inhibition of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors by bupropion involved in its clinical actions? Int J Biochem Cell Biol 2009; 41: 20982108.
  • 54
    Nomikos GG, Damsma G, Wenkstern D, Fibiger HC. Acute effects of bupropion on extracellular dopamine concentrations in rat striatum and nucleus accumbens studied by in vivo microdialysis. Neuropsychopharmacology 1989; 2: 273279.
  • 55
    Margolin A, Kosten TR, Avants SK, Wilkins J, Ling W, Beckson M, Arndt IO, Cornish J, Ascher JA, Li SH. A multicenter trial of bupropion for cocaine dependence in methadone-maintained patients. Drug Alcohol Depend 1995; 40: 125131.
  • 56
    Shoptaw S, Heinzerling KG, Rotheram-Fuller E, Kao UH, Wang PC, Bholat MA, Ling W. Bupropion hydrochloride versus placebo, in combination with cognitive behavioral therapy, for the treatment of cocaine abuse/dependence. J Addict Dis 2008; 27: 1323.
  • 57
    Shoptaw S, Heinzerling KG, Rotheram-Fuller E, Steward T, Wang J, Swanson AN, De La Garza R, Newton T, Ling W. Randomized, placebo-controlled trial of bupropion for the treatment of methamphetamine dependence. Drug Alcohol Depend 2008; 96: 222232.
  • 58
    Bourdelat-Parks BN, Anderson GM, Donaldson ZR, Weiss JM, Bonsall RW, Emery MS, Liles LC, Weinshenker D. Effects of dopamine beta-hydroxylase genotype and disulfiram inhibition on catecholamine homeostasis in mice. Psychopharmacology 2005; 183: 7280.
  • 59
    Carroll KM, Fenton LR, Ball SA, Nich C, Frankforter TL, Shi J, Rounsaville BJ. Efficacy of disulfiram and cognitive behavior therapy in cocaine-dependent outpatients: a randomized placebo-controlled trial. Arch Gen Psychiatry 2004; 61: 264272.
  • 60
    Carroll KM, Nich C, Ball SA, McCance E, Frankforter TL, Rounsaville BJ. One-year follow-up of disulfiram and psychotherapy for cocaine-alcohol users: sustained effects of treatment. Addiction 2000; 95: 13351349.
  • 61
    Carroll KM, Nich C, Ball SA, McCance E, Rounsavile BJ. Treatment of cocaine and alcohol dependence with psychotherapy and disulfiram. Addiction 1998; 93: 713727.
  • 62
    Oliveto A, Poling J, Mancino MJ, Feldman Z, Cubells JF, Pruzinsky R, Gonsai K, Cargile C, Sofuoglu M, Chopra MP, Gonzalez-Haddad G, Carroll KM, Kosten TR. Randomized, double blind, placebo-controlled trial of disulfiram for the treatment of cocaine dependence in methadone-stabilized patients. Drug Alcohol Depend 2011; 113: 184191.
  • 63
    Petrakis IL, Carroll KM, Nich C, Gordon LT, McCance-Katz EF, Frankforter T, Rounsaville BJ. Disulfiram treatment for cocaine dependence in methadone-maintained opioid addicts. Addiction 2000; 95: 219228.
  • 64
    Pettinati HM, Kampman KM, Lynch KG, Xie H, Dackis C, Rabinowitz AR, O'Brien CP. A double blind, placebo-controlled trial that combines disulfiram and naltrexone for treating co-occurring cocaine and alcohol dependence. Addict Behav 2008; 33: 651667.
  • 65
    Schroeder JP, Cooper DA, Schank JR, Lyle MA, Gaval-Cruz M, Ogbonmwan YE, Pozdeyev N, Freeman KG, Iuvone PM, Edwards GL, Holmes PV, Weinshenker D. Disulfiram attenuates drug-primed reinstatement of cocaine seeking via inhibition of dopamine beta-hydroxylase. Neuropsychopharmacology 2010; 35: 24402449.
  • 66
    Heidbreder CA, Newman AH. Current perspectives on selective dopamine D(3) receptor antagonists as pharmacotherapeutics for addictions and related disorders. Ann N Y Acad Sci 2010; 1187: 434.
  • 67
    Achat-Mendes C, Grundt P, Cao J, Platt DM, Newman AH, Spealman RD. Dopamine D3 and D2 receptor mechanisms in the abuse-related behavioral effects of cocaine: studies with preferential antagonists in squirrel monkeys. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 2010; 334: 556565.
  • 68
    Song R, Yang R-F, Wu N, Su R-B, Li J, Peng X-Q, Li X, Gaál J, Xi ZX, Gardner EL. YQA14: a novel dopamine D3 receptor antagonist that inhibits cocaine self-administration in rats and mice, but not in D3 receptor-knockout mice. Addict Biol 2012; 17: 259273.
  • 69
    Peng XQ, Ashby CR Jr, Spiller K, Li X, Li J, Thomasson N, Millan MJ, Mocaër E, Muńoz C, Gardner EL, Xi ZX. The preferential dopamine D3 receptor antagonist S33138 inhibits cocaine reward and cocaine-triggered relapse to drug-seeking behavior in rats. Neuropharmacology 2009; 56: 752760.
  • 70
    Xi ZX, Newman AH, Gilbert JG, Pak AC, Peng XQ, Ashby CR Jr, Gitajn L, Gardner EL. The novel dopamine D3 receptor antagonist NGB 2904 inhibits cocaine's rewarding effects and cocaine-induced reinstatement of drug-seeking behavior in rats. Neuropsychopharmacology 2006; 31: 13931405.
  • 71
    Xi ZX, Gilbert J, Campos AC, Kline N, Ashby CR Jr, Hagan JJ, Heidbreder CA, Gardner EL. Blockade of mesolimbic dopamine D3 receptors inhibits stress-induced reinstatement of cocaine-seeking in rats. Psychopharmacology 2004; 176: 5765.
  • 72
    Beardsley PM, Sokoloff P, Balster RL, Schwartz JC. The D3R partial agonist, BP 897, attenuates the discriminative stimulus effects of cocaine and d-amphetamine and is not self-administered. Behav Pharmacol 2001; 12: 111.
  • 73
    Martelle JL, Claytor R, Ross JT, Reboussin BA, Newman AH, Nader MA. Effects of two novel D3-selective compounds, NGB 2904 [N-(4-(4-(2,3-dichlorophenyl)piperazin-1-yl)butyl)-9H-fluorene-2-carboxamide] and CJB 090 [N-(4-(4-(2,3-dichlorophenyl)piperazin-1-yl)butyl)-4-(pyridin-2-yl)benzamide], on the reinforcing and discriminative stimulus effects of cocaine in rhesus monkeys. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 2007; 321: 573582.
  • 74
    Herz A. Endogenous opioid systems and alcohol addiction. Psychopharmacology 1997; 129: 99111.
  • 75
    Oswald LM, Wand GS. Opioids and alcoholism. Physiol Behav 2004; 81: 339358.
  • 76
    Osborn MD, Lowery JJ, Skorput AG, Giuvelis D, Bilsky EJ. In vivo characterization of the opioid antagonist nalmefene in mice. Life Sci [Comparative Study Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't]. 2010; 86: 624630.
  • 77
    Karhuvaara S, Simojoki K, Virta A, Rosberg M, Loyttyniemi E, Nurminen T, Kallio A, Mäkelä R. Targeted nalmefene with simple medical management in the treatment of heavy drinkers: a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled multicenter study. Alcohol Clin Exp Res 2007; 31: 11791187.
  • 78
    Mason BJ, Ritvo EC, Morgan RO, Salvato FR, Goldberg G, Welch B, Mantero-Atienza E. A Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Pilot Study to Evaluate the Efficacy and Safety of Oral Nalmefene HCI for Alcohol Dependence. Alcohol Clin Exp Res 1994; 18: 11621167.
  • 79
    Mason BJ, Salvato FR, Williams LD, Ritvo EC, Cutler RB. A double-blind, placebo-controlled study of oral nalmefene for alcohol dependence. Arch Gen Psychiatry 1999; 56: 719724.
  • 80
    Mann KBA, Torup L, Gual A, Van den Brink W. Shifting the paradigm; reduction of alcohol consumption in alcohol dependent patients – a randomised, double-blind placebo-controlled study of nalmefene, as-needed use. 20th European Congress of Psychiatry (EPA); March 3–6, 2012; Prague, Czech Republic 2012.
  • 81
    Gorelick DA. Pharmacokinetic strategies for treatment of drug overdose and addiction. Future Med Chem [Research Support, N.I.H., Intramural Review]. 2012; 4: 227243.
  • 82
    Martell BA, Orson FM, Poling J, Mitchell E, Rossen RD, Gardner T, Kosten TR. Cocaine vaccine for the treatment of cocaine dependence in methadone-maintained patients: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled efficacy trial. Arch Gen Psychiatry 2009; 66: 11161123.
  • 83
    Martell BA, Mitchell E, Poling J, Gonsai K, Kosten TR. Vaccine pharmacotherapy for the treatment of cocaine dependence. Biol Psychiatry 2005; 58: 158164.
  • 84
    Hatsukami DK, Rennard S, Jorenby D, Fiore M, Koopmeiners J, de Vos A, Horwith G, Pentel PR. Safety and immunogenicity of a nicotine conjugate vaccine in current smokers. Clin Pharmacol Ther 2005; 78: 456467.
  • 85
    Hatsukami DK, Jorenby DE, Gonzales D, Rigotti NA, Glover ED, Oncken CA, Tashkin DP, Reus VI, Akhavain RC, Fahim RE, Kessler PD, Niknian M, Kalnik MW, Rennard SI. Immunogenicity and smoking-cessation outcomes for a novel nicotine immunotherapeutic. Clin Pharmacol Ther 2011; 89: 392399.
  • 86
    Nabi P. News release: nabi biopharmaceuticals announces results of first NicVAX(R) phase III clinical trial. Smoking Cessation Immunotherapy Failed to Meet Primary Endpoint. Rockville, MD. 2011 Available at http://phx.corporate-ir.net/phoenix.zhtml?c=100445&p=irol-newsArticle&ID=1586001&highlight= (last access May 22 2012).
  • 87
    Raupach T, Hoogsteder PHJ, van Schayck CP. Nicotine vaccines to assist with smoking cessation: current status of research. Drugs 2012; 72: e1e16. 0.2165/11599900-000000000-00000.
  • 88
    Shen XY, Orson FM, Kosten TR. Vaccines against drug abuse. Clin Pharmacol Ther 2012; 91: 6070.
  • 89
    McMillan DE, Hardwick WC, Li M, Gunnell MG, Carroll FI, Abraham P, Owens SM. Effects of murine-derived anti-methamphetamine monoclonal antibodies on (+)-methamphetamine self-administration in the rat. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 2004; 309: 12481255.
  • 90
    Byrnes-Blake KA, Laurenzana EM, Landes RD, Gentry WB, Owens SM. Monoclonal IgG affinity and treatment time alters antagonism of (+)-methamphetamine effects in rats. Eur J Pharmacol 2005; 521: 8694.
  • 91
    Gentry WB, Laurenzana EM, Williams DK, West JR, Berg RJ, Terlea T, Owens SM. Safety and efficiency of an anti-(+)-methamphetamine monoclonal antibody in the protection against cardiovascular and central nervous system effects of (+)-methamphetamine in rats. Int Immunopharmacol 2006; 6: 968977.
  • 92
    Anton B, Salazar A, Flores A, Matus M, Marin R, Hernandez JA, Leff P. Vaccines against morphine/heroin and its use as effective medication for preventing relapse to opiate addictive behaviors. Human vaccines. 2009; 5: 214229.
  • 93
    Stowe GN, Vendruscolo LF, Edwards S, Schlosburg JE, Misra KK, Schulteis G, Mayorov AV, Zakhari JS, Koob GF, Janda KD. A vaccine strategy that induces protective immunity against heroin. J Med Chem 2011; 54: 51955204.
  • 94
    Norman AB, Norman MK, Buesing WR, Tabet MR, Tsibulsky VL, Ball WJ. The effect of a chimeric human/murine anti-cocaine monoclonal antibody on cocaine self-administration in rats. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 2009; 328: 873881.
  • 95
    Treweek JB, Roberts AJ, Janda KD. Immunopharmacotherapeutic manifolds and modulation of cocaine overdose. Pharmacol Biochem Behav 2011; 98: 474484.
  • 96
    Gentry WB, Ruedi-Bettschen D, Owens SM. Anti-(+)-methamphetamine monoclonal antibody antagonists designed to prevent the progression of human diseases of addiction. Clin Pharmacol Ther 2010; 88: 390393.
  • 97
    Gorelick DA. Enhancing cocaine metabolism with butyrylcholinesterase as a treatment strategy. Drug Alcohol Depend [Review]. 1997; 48: 159165.
  • 98
    Collins GT, Brim RL, Narasimhan D, Ko MC, Sunahara RK, Zhan CG, Woods JH. Cocaine esterase prevents cocaine-induced toxicity and the ongoing intravenous self-administration of cocaine in rats. J Pharmacol Exp Ther [Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural]. 2009; 331: 445455.
  • 99
    Ko MC, Narasimhan D, Berlin AA, Lukacs NW, Sunahara RK, Woods JH. Effects of cocaine esterase following its repeated administration with cocaine in mice. Drug Alcohol Depend [Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural]. 2009; 101: 202209.
  • 100
    McKenzie KM, Mee JM, Rogers CJ, Hixon MS, Kaufmann GF, Janda KD. Identification and characterization of single chain anti-cocaine catalytic antibodies. J Mol Biol 2007; 365: 722731.
  • 101
    Nieri P, Donadio E, Rossi S, Adinolfi B, Podesta A. Antibodies for therapeutic uses and the evolution of biotechniques. Curr Med Chem 2009; 16: 753779.
  • 102
    Koob GF, Le Moal M. Plasticity of reward neurocircuitry and the ‘dark side’ of drug addiction. Nat Neurosci 2005; 8: 14421444.
  • 103
    Koob GF, Le Moal M. Addiction and the brain antireward system. Annu Rev Psychol 2008; 59: 2953.
  • 104
    Koob GF, Volkow ND. Neurocircuitry of addiction. Neuropsychopharmacology 2010; 35: 217238.
  • 105
    Schmidt HD, Pierce RC. Cocaine-induced neuroadaptations in glutamate transmission: potential therapeutic targets for craving and addiction. Ann N Y Acad Sci 2010; 1187: 3575.
  • 106
    Treadway MT, Zald DH. Reconsidering anhedonia in depression: lessons from translational neuroscience. Neurosci Biobehav Rev 2010; 35: 537555.
  • 107
    Patterson F, Jepson C, Strasser AA, Loughead J, Perkins KA, Gur RC, Frey JM, Siegel S, Lerman C. Varenicline improves mood and cognition during smoking abstinence. Biol Psychiatry 2009; 65: 144149.
  • 108
    Sofuoglu M, Herman AI, Mooney M, Waters AJ. Varenicline attenuates some of the subjective and physiological effects of intravenous nicotine in humans. Psychopharmacology 2009; 207: 153162.
  • 109
    McFarland K, Davidge SB, Lapish CC, Kalivas PW. Limbic and motor circuitry underlying footshock-induced reinstatement of cocaine-seeking behavior. J Neurosci 2004; 24: 15511560.
  • 110
    Sinha R, Fox HC, Hong KI, Hansen J, Tuit K, Kreek MJ. Effects of adrenal sensitivity, stress- and cue-induced craving, and anxiety on subsequent alcohol relapse and treatment outcomes. Arch Gen Psychiatry 2011; 68: 942952.
  • 111
    Sinha R, Garcia M, Paliwal P, Kreek MJ, Rounsaville BJ. Stress-induced cocaine craving and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal responses are predictive of cocaine relapse outcomes. Arch Gen Psychiatry 2006; 63: 324331.
  • 112
    Sinha R, Talih M, Malison R, Cooney N, Anderson GM, Kreek MJ. Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and sympatho-adreno-medullary responses during stress-induced and drug cue-induced cocaine craving states. Psychopharmacology 2003; 170: 6272.
  • 113
    Stewart J. Pathways to relapse: the neurobiology of drug- and stress-induced relapse to drug-taking. J Psychiatry Neurosci 2000; 25: 125136.
  • 114
    Przegalinski E, Filip M, Frankowska M, Zaniewska M, Papla I. Effects of CP 154,526, a CRF1 receptor antagonist, on behavioral responses to cocaine in rats. Neuropeptides 2005; 39: 525533.
  • 115
    Shaham Y, Erb S, Leung S, Buczek Y, Stewart J. CP-154,526, a selective, non-peptide antagonist of the corticotropin-releasing factor1 receptor attenuates stress-induced relapse to drug seeking in cocaine- and heroin-trained rats. Psychopharmacology 1998; 137: 184190.
  • 116
    Moffett MC, Goeders NE. CP-154,526, a CRF type-1 receptor antagonist, attenuates the cue-and methamphetamine-induced reinstatement of extinguished methamphetamine-seeking behavior in rats. Psychopharmacology 2007; 190: 171180.
  • 117
    Lodge DJ, Lawrence AJ. The CRF1 receptor antagonist antalarmin reduces volitional ethanol consumption in isolation-reared fawn-hooded rats. Neuroscience 2003; 117: 243247.
  • 118
    Chu K, Koob GF, Cole M, Zorrilla EP, Roberts AJ. Dependence-induced increases in ethanol self-administration in mice are blocked by the CRF1 receptor antagonist antalarmin and by CRF1 receptor knockout. Pharmacol Biochem Behav 2007; 86: 813821.
  • 119
    Liu X, Weiss F. Additive effect of stress and drug cues on reinstatement of ethanol seeking: exacerbation by history of dependence and role of concurrent activation of corticotropin-releasing factor and opioid mechanisms. J Neurosci 2002; 22: 78567861.
  • 120
    Contarino A, Papaleo F. The corticotropin-releasing factor receptor-1 pathway mediates the negative affective states of opiate withdrawal. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2005; 102: 1864918654.
  • 121
    Navarro-Zaragoza J, Nunez C, Laorden ML, Milanes MV. Effects of corticotropin-releasing factor receptor-1 antagonists on the brain stress system responses to morphine withdrawal. Mol Pharmacol 2010; 77: 864873.
  • 122
    Skelton KH, Oren D, Gutman DA, Easterling K, Holtzman SG, Nemeroff CB, Owens MJ. The CRF1 receptor antagonist, R121919, attenuates the severity of precipitated morphine withdrawal. Eur J Pharmacol 2007; 571: 1724.
  • 123
    De Lecea L, Kilduff TS, Peyron C, Gao XB, Foye PE, Danielson PE, Fukuhara C, Battenberg ELF, Gautvik VT, Bartlett FS II, Frankel WN, Van Den Pol AN, Bloom FE, Gautvik KM, Sutcliffe JG. The hypocretins: hypothalamus-specific peptides with neuroexcitatory activity. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 1998; 95: 322327.
  • 124
    Harris GC, Wimmer M, Aston-Jones G. A role for lateral hypothalamic orexin neurons in reward seeking. Nature 2005; 437: 556559.
  • 125
    Sharf R, Sarhan M, DiLeone RJ. Role of orexin/hypocretin in dependence and addiction. Brain Res 2010; 1314: 130138.
  • 126
    Sharf R, Sarhan M, Dileone RJ. Orexin mediates the expression of precipitated morphine withdrawal and concurrent activation of the nucleus accumbens shell. Biol Psychiatry 2008; 64: 175183.
  • 127
    Hollander JA, Lu Q, Cameron MD, Kamenecka TM, Kenny PJ. Insular hypocretin transmission regulates nicotine reward. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2008; 105: 1948019485.
  • 128
    Lawrence AJ, Cowen MS, Yang H-J, Chen F, Oldfield B. The orexin system regulates alcohol-seeking in rats. Br J Pharmacol 2006; 148: 752759.
  • 129
    Aston-Jones G, Smith RJ, Moorman DE, Richardson KA. Role of lateral hypothalamic orexin neurons in reward processing and addiction. Neuropharmacology 2009; 56: (Suppl. 1): 112121.
  • 130
    Richards JK, Simms JA, Steensland P, Taha SA, Borgland SL, Bonci A, Bartlett SE. Inhibition of orexin-1/hypocretin-1 receptors inhibits yohimbine-induced reinstatement of ethanol and sucrose seeking in Long-Evans rats. Psychopharmacology 2008; 199: 109117.
  • 131
    Bayerlein K, Kraus T, Leinonen I, Pilniok D, Rotter A, Hofner B, Schwitulla J, Sperling W, Kornhuber J, Biermann T. Orexin A expression and promoter methylation in patients with alcohol dependence comparing acute and protracted withdrawal. Alcohol 2011; 45: 541547.
  • 132
    von der Goltz C, Koopmann A, Dinter C, Richter A, Grosshans M, Fink T, Wiedemann K, Kiefer F. Involvement of orexin in the regulation of stress, depression and reward in alcohol dependence. Horm Behav 2011; 60: 644650.
  • 133
    Sinha R, Kimmerling A, Doebrick C, Kosten TR. Effects of lofexidine on stress-induced and cue-induced opioid craving and opioid abstinence rates: preliminary findings. Psychopharmacology 2007; 190: 569574.
  • 134
    Highfield D, Yap J, Grimm JW, Shalev U, Shaham Y. Repeated lofexidine treatment attenuates stress-induced, but not drug cues-induced reinstatement of a heroin-cocaine mixture (speedball) seeking in rats. Neuropsychopharmacology 2001; 25: 320331.
  • 135
    Fox H, Seo D, Tuit K, Hansen J, Kimmerling A, Morgan PT, Sinha R. Guanfacine effects on stress, drug craving and prefrontal activation in cocaine dependent individuals: preliminary findings. J Psychopharmacol 2012; 26: 958–72.
  • 136
    Rasmussen DD, Alexander LL, Raskind MA, Froehlich JC. The alpha1-adrenergic receptor antagonist, prazosin, reduces alcohol drinking in alcohol-preferring (P) rats. Alcohol Clin Exp Res 2009; 33: 264272.
  • 137
    Walker BM, Rasmussen DD, Raskind MA, Koob GF. alpha1-noradrenergic receptor antagonism blocks dependence-induced increases in responding for ethanol. Alcohol 2008; 42: 9197.
  • 138
    Greenwell TN, Walker BM, Cottone P, Zorrilla EP, Koob GF. The alpha1 adrenergic receptor antagonist prazosin reduces heroin self-administration in rats with extended access to heroin administration. Pharmacol Biochem Behav 2009; 91: 295302.
  • 139
    Zhang XY, Kosten TA. Prazosin, an alpha -1 Adrenergic Antagonist, Reduces Cocaine-Induced Reinstatement of Drug-Seeking. Biol Psychiatry 2005; 57: 12021204.
  • 140
    Simpson TL, Saxon AJ, Meredith CW, Malte CA, McBride B, Ferguson LC, Gross CA, Hart KL, Raskind M. A Pilot Trial of the Alpha-1 Adrenergic Antagonist, Prazosin, for Alcohol Dependence. Alcohol Clin Exp Res 2009; 33: 255263.
  • 141
    Fox HC, Anderson GM, Tuit K, Hansen J, Kimmerling A, Siedlarz KM, Morgan PT, Sinha R. Prazosin effects on stress- and cue-induced craving and stress response in alcohol-dependent individuals: preliminary findings. Alcohol Clin Exp Res 2012; 36: 351360.
  • 142
    Kalivas PW, Lalumiere RT, Knackstedt L, Shen H. Glutamate transmission in addiction. Neuropharmacology 2009; 56: (Suppl. 1): 169173.
  • 143
    Kalivas PW, Volkow ND. New medications for drug addiction hiding in glutamatergic neuroplasticity. Mol Psychiatry 2011; 16: 974986.
  • 144
    Olive MF, Cleva RM, Kalivas PW, Malcolm RJ. Glutamatergic medications for the treatment of drug and behavioral addictions. Pharmacol Biochem Behav 2012; 100: 801810.
  • 145
    Krupitsky EM, Neznanova O, Masalov D, Burakov AM, Didenko T, Romanova T, Tsoy M, Bespalov A, Slavina TY, Grinenko AA, Petrakis IL, Pittman B, Gueorguieva R, Zvartau EE, Krystal JH. Effect of memantine on cue-induced alcohol craving in recovering alcohol-dependent patients. Am J Psychiatry 2007; 164: 519523.
  • 146
    Evans SM, Levin FR, Brooks DJ, Garawi F. A pilot double-blind treatment trial of memantine for alcohol dependence. Alcohol Clin Exp Res 2007; 31: 775782.
  • 147
    Bisaga A, Aharonovich E, Cheng WY, Levin FR, Mariani JJ, Raby WN, Nunes EV. A placebo-controlled trial of memantine for cocaine dependence with high-value voucher incentives during a pre-randomization lead-in period. Drug Alcohol Depend 2010; 111: 97104.
  • 148
    Baker DA, McFarland K, Lake RW, Shen H, Toda S, Kalivas PW. N-acetyl cysteine-induced blockade of cocaine-induced reinstatement. Ann N Y Acad Sci 2003; 1003: 349351.
  • 149
    Reichel CM, Moussawi K, Do PH, Kalivas PW, See RE. Chronic N-acetylcysteine during abstinence or extinction after cocaine self-administration produces enduring reductions in drug seeking. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 2011; 337: 487493.
  • 150
    Reichel CM, See RE. Chronic N-acetylcysteine after cocaine self-administration produces enduring reductions in drug-seeking. Neuropsychopharmacology 2012; 37: 298.
  • 151
    Madayag A, Lobner D, Kau KS, Mantsch JR, Abdulhameed O, Hearing M, Grier MD, Baker DA. Repeated N-acetylcysteine administration alters plasticity-dependent effects of cocaine. J Neurosci 2007; 27: 1396813976.
  • 152
    Moussawi K, Zhou W, Shen H, Reichel CM, See RE, Carr DB, Kalivas PW. Reversing cocaine-induced synaptic potentiation provides enduring protection from relapse. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2011; 108: 385390.
  • 153
    Zhou W, Kalivas PW. N-acetylcysteine reduces extinction responding and induces enduring reductions in cue- and heroin-induced drug-seeking. Biol Psychiatry 2008; 63: 338340.
  • 154
    Amen SL, Piacentine LB, Ahmad ME, Li SJ, Mantsch JR, Risinger RC, Baker DA. Repeated N-acetyl cysteine reduces cocaine seeking in rodents and craving in cocaine-dependent humans. Neuropsychopharmacology 2011; 36: 871878.
  • 155
    LaRowe SD, Myrick H, Hedden S, Mardikian P, Saladin M, McRae A, Brady K, Kalivas PW, Malcolm R. Is cocaine desire reduced by N-acetylcysteine? Am J Psychiatry 2007; 164: 11151117.
  • 156
    Mardikian PN, LaRowe SD, Hedden S, Kalivas PW, Malcolm RJ. An open-label trial of N-acetylcysteine for the treatment of cocaine dependence: a pilot study. Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry 2007; 31: 389394.
  • 157
    Gray KM, Carpenter MJ, Baker NL, Desantis SM, Kryway E, Hartwell KJ, McRae-Clark AL, Brady KT. A double-blind randomized controlled trial of N-acetylcysteine in cannabis-dependent adolescents. Am J Psychiatry 2012; 169: 805812.
  • 158
    Knackstedt LA, LaRowe S, Mardikian P, Malcolm R, Upadhyaya H, Hedden S, Markou A, Kalivas PW. The role of cystine-glutamate exchange in nicotine dependence in rats and humans. Biol Psychiatry 2009; 65: 841845.
  • 159
    Zhao Y, Dayas CV, Aujla H, Baptista MA, Martin-Fardon R, Weiss F. Activation of group II metabotropic glutamate receptors attenuates both stress and cue-induced ethanol-seeking and modulates c-fos expression in the hippocampus and amygdala. J Neurosci 2006; 26: 99679974.
  • 160
    Sidhpura N, Weiss F, Martin-Fardon R. Effects of the mGlu2/3 agonist LY379268 and the mGlu5 antagonist MTEP on ethanol seeking and reinforcement are differentially altered in rats with a history of ethanol dependence. Biol Psychiatry 2010; 67: 804811.
  • 161
    Baptista MA, Martin-Fardon R, Weiss F. Preferential effects of the metabotropic glutamate 2/3 receptor agonist LY379268 on conditioned reinstatement versus primary reinforcement: comparison between cocaine and a potent conventional reinforcer. J Neurosci 2004; 24: 47234727.
  • 162
    Adewale AS, Platt DM, Spealman RD. Pharmacological stimulation of group ii metabotropic glutamate receptors reduces cocaine self-administration and cocaine-induced reinstatement of drug seeking in squirrel monkeys. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 2006; 318: 922931.
  • 163
    Bossert JM, Busch RF, Gray SM. The novel mGluR2/3 agonist LY379268 attenuates cue-induced reinstatement of heroin seeking. Neuroreport 2005; 16: 10131016.
  • 164
    Liechti ME, Lhuillier L, Kaupmann K, Markou A. Metabotropic glutamate 2/3 receptors in the ventral tegmental area and the nucleus accumbens shell are involved in behaviors relating to nicotine dependence. J Neurosci 2007; 27: 90779085.
  • 165
    Cowen MS, Djouma E, Lawrence AJ. The metabotropic glutamate 5 receptor antagonist 3-[(2-methyl-1,3-thiazol-4-yl)ethynyl]-pyridine reduces ethanol self-administration in multiple strains of alcohol-preferring rats and regulates olfactory glutamatergic systems. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 2005; 315: 590600.
  • 166
    Cowen MS, Krstew E, Lawrence AJ. Assessing appetitive and consummatory phases of ethanol self-administration in C57BL/6J mice under operant conditions: regulation by mGlu5 receptor antagonism. Psychopharmacology 2007; 190: 2129.
  • 167
    Gass JT, Osborne MP, Watson NL, Brown JL, Olive MF. mGluR5 antagonism attenuates methamphetamine reinforcement and prevents reinstatement of methamphetamine-seeking behavior in rats. Neuropsychopharmacology 2009; 34: 820833.
  • 168
    Lee B, Platt DM, Rowlett JK, Adewale AS, Spealman RD. Attenuation of behavioral effects of cocaine by the Metabotropic Glutamate Receptor 5 Antagonist 2-Methyl-6-(phenylethynyl)-pyridine in squirrel monkeys: comparison with dizocilpine. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 2005; 312: 12321240.
  • 169
    Osborne MP, Olive MF. A role for mGluR5 receptors in intravenous methamphetamine self-administration. Ann N Y Acad Sci 2008; 1139: 206211.
  • 170
    Liechti ME, Markou A. Interactive effects of the mGlu5 receptor antagonist MPEP and the mGlu2/3 receptor antagonist LY341495 on nicotine self-administration and reward deficits associated with nicotine withdrawal in rats. Eur J Pharmacol 2007; 554: 164174.
  • 171
    Paterson NE, Markou A. The metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 antagonist MPEP decreased break points for nicotine, cocaine and food in rats. Psychopharmacology 2005; 179: 255261.
  • 172
    Petroff OAC, Rothman DL, Behar KL, Collins TL, Mattson RH. Human brain GABA levels rise rapidly after initiation of vigabatrin therapy. Neurology 1996; 47: 15671571.
  • 173
    Dewey SL, Morgan AE, Ashby CR, Horan B, Kushner SA, Logan J, Volkow ND, Fowler JS, Gardner EL, Brodie JD. A novel strategy for the treatment of cocaine addiction. Synapse 1998; 30: 119129.
  • 174
    Brodie JD, Case BG, Figueroa E, Dewey SL, Robinson JA, Wanderling JA, Laska EM. Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of vigabatrin for the treatment of cocaine dependence in Mexican parolees. Am J Psychiatry 2009; 166: 12691277.
  • 175
    Addolorato G, Leggio L, Ferrulli A, Cardone S, Bedogni G, Caputo F, Gasbarrini G, Landolfi R. Dose-response effect of baclofen in reducing daily alcohol intake in alcohol dependence: secondary analysis of a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Alcohol Alcohol 2011; 46: 312317.
  • 176
    Addolorato G, Leggio L, Ferrulli A, Cardone S, Vonghia L, Mirijello A, Abenavoli L, D'Angelo C, Caputo F, Zambon A, Haber PS, Gasbarrini G. Effectiveness and safety of baclofen for maintenance of alcohol abstinence in alcohol-dependent patients with liver cirrhosis: randomised, double-blind controlled study. Lancet 2007; 370: 19151922.
  • 177
    Garbutt JC, Kampov-Polevoy AB, Gallop R, Kalka-Juhl L, Flannery BA. Efficacy and safety of baclofen for alcohol dependence: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Alcohol Clin Exp Res 2010; 34: 18491857.
  • 178
    Leggio L, Garbutt JC, Addolorato G. Effectiveness and safety of baclofen in the treatment of alcohol dependent patients. CNS Neurol Disord Drug Targets [Review]. 2010; 9: 3344.
  • 179
    Assadi SM, Radgoodarzi R, Ahmadi-Abhari SA. Baclofen for maintenance treatment of opioid dependence: a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled clinical trial [ISRCTN32121581]. BMC Psychiatry 2003; 3: 16.
  • 180
    Haney M, Hart CL, Foltin RW. Effects of baclofen on cocaine self-administration: opioid- and nonopioid-dependent volunteers. Neuropsychopharmacology 2006; 31: 18141821.
  • 181
    Heinzerling KG, Shoptaw S, Peck JA, Yang X, Liu J, Roll J, Ling W. Randomized, placebo-controlled trial of baclofen and gabapentin for the treatment of methamphetamine dependence. Drug Alcohol Depend 2006; 85: 177184.
  • 182
    Kahn R, Biswas K, Childress A-R, Shoptaw S, Fudala PJ, Gorgon L, Montoya I, Collins J, McSherry F, Li S-H, Chiang N, Alathari H, Watson D, Liberto J, Beresford T, Stock C, Wallace C, Gruber V, Elkashef A. Multi-center trial of baclofen for abstinence initiation in severe cocaine-dependent individuals. Drug Alcohol Depend 2009; 103: 5964.
  • 183
    Lile JA, Stoops WW, Allen TS, Glaser PEA, Hays LR, Rush CR. Baclofen does not alter the reinforcing, subject-rated or cardiovascular effects of intranasal cocaine in humans. Psychopharmacology 2004; 171: 441449.
  • 184
    Shoptaw S, Yang X, Rotheram-Fuller EJ, Hsieh Y-CM, Kintaudi PC, Charuvastra VC, Ling W. Randomized placebo-controlled trial of baclofen for cocaine dependence: preliminary effects for individuals with chronic patterns of cocaine use. J Clin Psychiatry 2003; 64: 14401448.
  • 185
    Colombo G, Agabio R, Carai MA, Lobina C, Pani M, Reali R, Addolorato G, Gessa GL. Ability of baclofen in reducing alcohol intake and withdrawal severity: I–Preclinical evidence. Alcohol Clin Exp Res 2000; 24: 5866.
  • 186
    Bettler B, Kaupmann K, Mosbacher J, Gassmann M. Molecular structure and physiological functions of GABA(B) receptors. Physiol Rev 2004; 84: 835867.
  • 187
    Urwyler S, Gjoni T, Koljatic J, Dupuis DS. Mechanisms of allosteric modulation at GABAB receptors by CGP7930 and GS39783: effects on affinities and efficacies of orthosteric ligands with distinct intrinsic properties. Neuropharmacology 2005; 48: 343353.
  • 188
    Maccioni P, Colombo G. Role of the GABA(B) receptor in alcohol-seeking and drinking behavior. Alcohol 2009; 43: 555558.
  • 189
    Paterson NE, Vlachou S, Guery S, Kaupmann K, Froestl W, Markou A. Positive modulation of GABA(B) receptors decreased nicotine self-administration and counteracted nicotine-induced enhancement of brain reward function in rats. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 2008; 326: 306314.
  • 190
    Vlachou S, Guery S, Froestl W, Banerjee D, Benedict J, Finn MG, Markou A. Repeated administration of the GABAB receptor positive modulator BHF177 decreased nicotine self-administration, and acute administration decreased cue-induced reinstatement of nicotine seeking in rats. Psychopharmacology 2011; 215: 117128.
  • 191
    Filip M, Frankowska M, Przegalinski E. Effects of GABA(B) receptor antagonist, agonists and allosteric positive modulator on the cocaine-induced self-administration and drug discrimination. Eur J Pharmacol 2007; 574: 148157.
  • 192
    Halbout B, Quarta D, Valerio E, Heidbreder CA, Hutcheson DM. The GABA-B positive modulator GS39783 decreases psychostimulant conditioned-reinforcement and conditioned-reward. Addict Biol 2011; 16: 416427.
  • 193
    Smith MA, Yancey DL, Morgan D, Liu Y, Froestl W, Roberts DC. Effects of positive allosteric modulators of the GABAB receptor on cocaine self-administration in rats. Psychopharmacology 2004; 173: 105111.
  • 194
    Voigt RM, Herrold AA, Riddle JL, Napier TC. Administration of GABA(B) receptor positive allosteric modulators inhibit the expression of previously established methamphetamine-induced conditioned place preference. Behav Brain Res 2011; 216: 419423.
  • 195
    Adams CL, Lawrence AJ. CGP7930: a positive allosteric modulator of the GABAB receptor. CNS Drug Rev [Review]. 2007; 13: 308316.
  • 196
    Williams MJ, Adinoff B. The role of acetylcholine in cocaine addiction. Neuropsychopharmacology 2008; 33: 17791797.
  • 197
    Sofuoglu M, Mooney M. Cholinergic functioning in stimulant addiction: implications for medications development. CNS Drugs 2009; 23: 939952.
  • 198
    Panagis G, Kastellakis A, Spyraki C, Nomikos G. Effects of methyllycaconitine (MLA), an alpha 7 nicotinic receptor antagonist, on nicotine- and cocaine-induced potentiation of brain stimulation reward. Psychopharmacology 2000; 149: 388396.
  • 199
    Schoffelmeer AN, De Vries TJ, Wardeh G, van de Ven HW, Vanderschuren LJ. Psychostimulant-induced behavioral sensitization depends on nicotinic receptor activation. J Neurosci [In Vitro]. 2002; 22: 32693276.
  • 200
    Plebani JG, Lynch KG, Yu Q, Pettinati HM, O'Brien CP, Kampman KM. Results of an initial clinical trial of varenicline for the treatment of cocaine dependence. Drug Alcohol Depend 2012; 121: 163166.
  • 201
    Steensland P, Simms JA, Holgate J, Richards JK, Bartlett SE. Varenicline, an alpha4beta2 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor partial agonist, selectively decreases ethanol consumption and seeking. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2007; 104: 1251812523.
  • 202
    McKee SA, Harrison EL, O'Malley SS, Krishnan-Sarin S, Shi J, Tetrault JM, Picciotto MR, Petrakis IL, Estevez N, Balchunas E. Varenicline reduces alcohol self-administration in heavy-drinking smokers. Biol Psychiatry 2009; 66: 185190.
  • 203
    Poling J, Rounsaville B, Gonsai K, Severino K, Sofuoglu M. The safety and efficacy of varenicline in cocaine using smokers maintained on methadone: a pilot study. Am J Addict 2010; 19: 401408.
  • 204
    Hesselbrock VM, Hesselbrock MN. Developmental perspectives on the risk for developng substance use problems. In: Rethinking Substance Abuse: What the Science Shows, and What We Should Do About It, eds Miller WR , Carroll KM . New York: The Guilford Press, 2006; 97114.
  • 205
    Childress AR. What can human brain imaging tell us about vulnerability to addiction and relapse? In: Rethinking Substance Abuse, eds Miller WR , Carroll KM . New York: Guilford, 2006; 4660.
  • 206
    Crews F, He J, Hodge C. Adolescent cortical development: a critical period of vulnerability for addiction. Pharmacol Biochem Behav 2007; 86: 189199.
  • 207
    Le Moal M. Drug abuse: vulnerability and transition to addiction. Pharmacopsychiatry 2009; 42: (Suppl. 1): S4255.
  • 208
    Uhl GR, Drgon T, Johnson C, Liu QR. Addiction genetics and pleiotropic effects of common haplotypes that make polygenic contributions to vulnerability to substance dependence. J Neurogenet 2009; 23: 272282.
  • 209
    Sinha R. Chronic stress, drug use, and vulnerability to addiction. Ann N Y Acad Sci 2008; 1141: 105130.
  • 210
    Everitt BJ, Belin D, Economidou D, Pelloux Y, Dalley JW, Robbins TW. Review. Neural mechanisms underlying the vulnerability to develop compulsive drug-seeking habits and addiction. Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci 2008; 363: 31253135.
  • 211
    Uhl GR. Molecular genetics of addiction vulnerability. NeuroRx 2006; 3: 295301.
  • 212
    O'Dell LE, Bruijnzeel AW, Smith RT, Parsons LH, Merves ML, Goldberger BA, Richardson HN, Koob GF, Markou A. Diminished nicotine withdrawal in adolescent rats: implications for vulnerability to addiction. Psychopharmacology 2006; 186: 612619.
  • 213
    Kreek MJ, Nielsen DA, Butelman ER, LaForge KS. Genetic influences on impulsivity, risk taking, stress responsivity and vulnerability to drug abuse and addiction. Nat Neurosci 2005; 8: 14501457.
  • 214
    Fernandez-Serrano MJ, Perales JC, Moreno-Lopez L, Perez-Garcia M, Verdejo-Garcia A. Neuropsychological profiling of impulsivity and compulsivity in cocaine dependent individuals. Psychopharmacology 2012; 219: 673683.
  • 215
    Jovanovski D, Erb S, Zakzanis KK. Neurocognitive deficits in cocaine users: a quantitative review of the evidence. J Clin Exp Neuropsychol 2005; 27: 189204.
  • 216
    Stavro K, Pelletier J, Potvin S. Widespread and sustained cognitive deficits in alcoholism: a meta-analysis. Addict Biol 2012 Jan 20; doi: 10.1111/j.1369-1600.2011.00418.x.
  • 217
    Durazzo TC, Meyerhoff DJ, Nixon SJ. Chronic cigarette smoking: implications for neurocognition and brain neurobiology. Int J Environ Res Public Health 2010; 7: 37603791.
  • 218
    Aharonovich E, Hasin DS, Brooks AC, Liu X, Bisaga A, Nunes EV. Cognitive deficits predict low treatment retention in cocaine dependent patients. Drug Alcohol Depend 2006; 81: 313322.
  • 219
    Bates ME, Pawlak AP, Tonigan JS, Buckman JF. Cognitive impairment influences drinking outcome by altering therapeutic mechanisms of change. Psychol Addict Behav 2006; 20: 241253.
  • 220
    Robbins TW, Arnsten AF. The neuropsychopharmacology of fronto-executive function: monoaminergic modulation. Annu Rev Neurosci 2009; 32: 267287.
  • 221
    Giacobini E. Cholinesterase inhibitors: new roles and therapeutic alternatives. Pharmacol Res 2004; 50: 433440.
  • 222
    Schilstrom B, Ivanov VB, Wiker C, Svensson TH. Galantamine enhances dopaminergic neurotransmission in vivo via allosteric potentiation of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors. Neuropsychopharmacology 2007; 32: 4353.
  • 223
    Sofuoglu M, Waters AJ, Poling J, Carroll KM. Galantamine improves sustained attention in chronic cocaine users. Exp Clin Psychopharmacol 2011; 19: 1119.
  • 224
    Sofuoglu M, Carroll KM. Effects of galantamine on cocaine use in chronic cocaine users. Am J Addict 2011; 20: 302303.
  • 225
    Sofuoglu M, Herman A, Li Y, Waters A. Galantamine attenuates some of the subjective effects of intravenous nicotine and improves performance on a Go No-Go task in abstinent cigarette smokers (in submission). 2012.
  • 226
    Kim CH, Hahn MK, Joung Y, Anderson SL, Steele AH, Mazei-Robinson MS, Gizer I, Teicher MH, Cohen BM, Robertson D, Waldman ID, Blakely RD, Kim KS. A polymorphism in the norepinephrine transporter gene alters promoter activity and is associated with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2006; 103: 1916419169.
  • 227
    Bymaster FP, Katner JS, Nelson DL, Hemrick-Luecke SK, Threlkeld PG, Heiligenstein JH, Morin SM, Gehlert DR, Perry KW. Atomoxetine increases extracellular levels of norepinephrine and dopamine in prefrontal cortex of rat: a potential mechanism for efficacy in attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Neuropsychopharmacology 2002; 27: 699711.
  • 228
    Swanson CJ, Perry KW, Koch-Krueger S, Katner J, Svensson KA, Bymaster FP. Effect of the attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder drug atomoxetine on extracellular concentrations of norepinephrine and dopamine in several brain regions of the rat. Neuropharmacology 2006; 50: 755760.
  • 229
    Jentsch JD, Aarde SM, Seu E. Effects of atomoxetine and methylphenidate on performance of a lateralized reaction time task in rats. Psychopharmacology 2009; 202: 497504.
  • 230
    Seu E, Lang A, Rivera RJ, Jentsch JD. Inhibition of the norepinephrine transporter improves behavioral flexibility in rats and monkeys. Psychopharmacology 2009; 202: 505519.
  • 231
    Chamberlain SR, Del Campo N, Dowson J, Muller U, Clark L, Robbins TW, Sahakian BJ. Atomoxetine improved response inhibition in adults with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Biol Psychiatry 2007; 62: 977984.
  • 232
    Chamberlain SR, Hampshire A, Muller U, Rubia K, Del Campo N, Craig K, Regenthal R, Suckling J, Roiser JP, Grant JE, Bullmore ET, Robbins TW, Sahakian BJ. Atomoxetine modulates right inferior frontal activation during inhibitory control: a pharmacological functional magnetic resonance imaging study. Biol Psychiatry 2009; 65: 550555.
  • 233
    Faraone SV, Biederman J, Spencer T, Michelson D, Adler L, Reimherr F, Glatt SJ. Atomoxetine and stroop task performance in adult attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. J Child Adolesc Psychopharmacol 2005; 15: 664670.
  • 234
    Li CS, Milivojevic V, Kemp K, Hong K, Sinha R. Performance monitoring and stop signal inhibition in abstinent patients with cocaine dependence. Drug Alcohol Depend 2006; 85: 205212.
  • 235
    Monterosso JR, Aron AR, Cordova X, Xu J, London ED. Deficits in response inhibition associated with chronic methamphetamine abuse. Drug Alcohol Depend 2005; 79: 273277.
  • 236
    Zhang XQ, Cui Y, Chen Y, Na XD, Chen FY, Wei XH, Li YY, Liu XG, Xin WJ. Activation of p38 signaling in the microglia in the nucleus accumbens contributes to the acquisition and maintenance of morphine-induced conditioned place preference. Brain Behav Immun 2012; 26: 318325.
  • 237
    Mizoguchi H, Takuma K, Fukakusa A, Ito Y, Nakatani A, Ibi D, Kim HC, Yamada K. Improvement by minocycline of methamphetamine-induced impairment of recognition memory in mice. Psychopharmacology 2008; 196: 233241.
  • 238
    Zhang L, Kitaichi K, Fujimoto Y, Nakayama H, Shimizu E, Iyo M, Hashimoto K. Protective effects of minocycline on behavioral changes and neurotoxicity in mice after administration of methamphetamine. Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry 2006; 30: 13811393.
  • 239
    Sofuoglu M, Mooney M, Kosten T, Waters A, Hashimoto K. Minocycline attenuates subjective rewarding effects of dextroamphetamine in humans. Psychopharmacology 2011; 213: 6168.
  • 240
    Brady KT, Gray KM, Tolliver BK. Cognitive enhancers in the treatment of substance use disorders: clinical evidence. Pharmacol Biochem Behav 2011; 99: 285294.
  • 241
    Olive MF. Cognitive effects of Group I metabotropic glutamate receptor ligands in the context of drug addiction. Eur J Pharmacol 2010; 639: 4758.
  • 242
    Sofuoglu M, Devito EE, Waters AJ, Carroll KM. Cognitive enhancement as a treatment for drug addictions. Neuropharmacology 2012; 64: 452463.
  • 243
    Hart CL, Marvin CB, Silver R, Smith EE. Is cognitive functioning impaired in methamphetamine users? A critical review. Neuropsychopharmacology 2012; 37: 586608.
  • 244
    Lynch WJ, Roth ME, Carroll ME, Lynch WJ, Roth ME, Carroll ME. Biological basis of sex differences in drug abuse: preclinical and clinical studies. Psychopharmacology 2002; 164: 121137.
  • 245
    Lynch WJ, Lynch WJ. Sex differences in vulnerability to drug self-administration. Exp Clin Psychopharmacol 2006; 14: 3441.
  • 246
    Festa ED, Quinones-Jenab V. Gonadal hormones provide the biological basis for sex differences in behavioral responses to cocaine. Horm Behav 2004; 46: 509519.
  • 247
    Mello NK, Knudson IM, Mendelson JH, Mello NK, Knudson IM, Mendelson JH. Sex and menstrual cycle effects on progressive ratio measures of cocaine self-administration in cynomolgus monkeys. Neuropsychopharmacology 2007; 32: 19561966.
  • 248
    Hu M, Crombag HS, Robinson TE, Becker JB. Biological Basis of Sex Differences in the Propensity to Self-administer Cocaine. Neuropsychopharmacology 2003; 29: 8185.
  • 249
    Lynch WJ, Taylor JR, Lynch WJ, Taylor JR. Decreased motivation following cocaine self-administration under extended access conditions: effects of sex and ovarian hormones. Neuropsychopharmacology 2005; 30: 927935.
  • 250
    Lynch WJ, Roth ME, Mickelberg JL, Carroll ME. Role of estrogen in the acquisition of intravenously self-administered cocaine in female rats. Pharmacol Biochem Behav 2001; 68: 641646.
  • 251
    Yang H, Zhao W, Hu M, Becker JB. Interactions among ovarian hormones and time of testing on behavioral sensitization and cocaine self-administration. Behav Brain Res 2007; 184: 174184.
  • 252
    Larson EB, Anker JJ, Gliddon LA, Fons KS, Carroll ME. Effects of estrogen and progesterone on the escalation of cocaine self-administration in female rats during extended access. Exp Clin Psychopharmacol 2007; 15: 461471.
  • 253
    Hu M, Becker JB, Hu M, Becker JB. Effects of sex and estrogen on behavioral sensitization to cocaine in rats. J Neurosci [Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.]. 2003; 23: 693699.
  • 254
    Perrotti LI, Russo SJ, Fletcher H, Chin J, Webb T, Jenab S, Quiñones-Jenab V. Ovarian hormones modulate cocaine-induced locomotor and stereotypic activity. Ann N Y Acad Sci [Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.]. 2001; 937: 202216.
  • 255
    Sell SL, Thomas ML, Cunningham KA, Sell SL, Thomas ML, Cunningham KA. Influence of estrous cycle and estradiol on behavioral sensitization to cocaine in female rats. Drug Alcohol Depend [Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.]. 2002; 67: 281290.
  • 256
    Niyomchai T, Jenab S, Festa ED, Akhavan A, Quinones-Jenab V. Effects of short- and long-term estrogen and progesterone replacement on behavioral responses and c-fos mRNA levels in female rats after acute cocaine administration. Brain Res 2006; 1126: 193.
  • 257
    Niyomchai T, Russo SJ, Festa ED, Akhavan A, Jenab S, Quinones-Jenab V et al. Progesterone inhibits behavioral responses and estrogen increases corticosterone levels after acute cocaine administration. Pharmacol Biochem Behav 2005; 80: 603610.
  • 258
    Russo SJ, Sun WL, Minerly AC, Weierstall K, Nazarian A, Festa ED, Niyomchai T, Akhavan A, Luine V, Jenab S, Quiñones-Jenab V. Progesterone attenuates cocaine-induced conditioned place preference in female rats. Brain Res 2008; 1189: 229235.
  • 259
    Romieu P, Martin-Fardon R, Bowen W, Maurice T. Sigma 1 receptor-related neuroactive steroids modulate cocaine-induced reward. J Neurosci 2003; 23: 35723576.
  • 260
    Feltenstein MW, See RE, Feltenstein MW, See RE. Plasma progesterone levels and cocaine-seeking in freely cycling female rats across the estrous cycle. Drug Alcohol Depend 2007; 89: 183189.
  • 261
    Jackson LR, Robinson TE, Becker JB. Sex differences and hormonal influences on acquisition of cocaine self-administration in rats. Neuropsychopharmacology 2006; 31: 129138.
  • 262
    Anker JJ, Larson EB, Gliddon LA, Carroll ME. Effects of progesterone on the reinstatement of cocaine-seeking behavior in female rats. Exp Clin Psychopharmacol 2007; 15: 472480.
  • 263
    Feltenstein MW, Byrd EA, Henderson AR, See RE. Attenuation of cocaine-seeking by progesterone treatment in female rats. Psychoneuroendocrinology 2009; 34: 343352.
  • 264
    Quinones-Jenab V, Jenab S. Progesterone attenuates cocaine-induced responses. Horm Behav 2010; 58: 2232.
  • 265
    Becker JB, Hu M. Sex differences in drug abuse. Front Neuroendocrinol 2008; 29: 3647.
  • 266
    Thompson TL. Attenuation of dopamine uptake in vivo following priming with estradiol benzoate. Brain Res 1999; 834: 164167.
  • 267
    Thompson TL, Bridges S, Miller C. Modulation of dopamine uptake in rat nucleus accumbens: effect of specific dopamine receptor antagonists and sigma ligands. Neurosci Lett 2001; 312: 169172.
  • 268
    Thompson TL, Bridges SR, Weirs WJ. Alteration of dopamine transport in the striatum and nucleus accumbens of ovariectomized and estrogen-primed rats following N-(p-isothiocyanatophenethyl) spiperone (NIPS) treatment. Brain Res Bull 2001; 54: 631638.
  • 269
    Thompson TL, Moss RL. Modulation of mesolimbic dopaminergic activity over the rat estrous cycle. Neurosci Lett 1997; 229: 145148.
  • 270
    Baulieu EE. Neurosteroids: a novel function of the brain. Psychoneuroendocrinology 1998; 23: 963987.
  • 271
    Deutsch SI, Mastropaolo J, Hitri A. GABA-Active steroids: Endogenous modulators of GABA-gated chloride ion conductance. Clin Neuropharmacol 1992; 15: 352364.
  • 272
    Sinha R, Fox H, Hong KI, Sofuoglu M, Morgan PT, Bergquist KT. Sex steroid hormones, stress response, and drug craving in cocaine-dependent women: implications for relapse susceptibility. Exp Clin Psychopharmacol 2007; 15: 445452.
  • 273
    Sofuoglu M, Babb DA, Hatsukami DK. Effects of progesterone treatment on smoked cocaine response in women. Pharmacol Biochem Behav 2002; 72: 431435.
  • 274
    Sofuoglu M, Mitchell E, Kosten TR. Effects of progesterone treatment on cocaine responses in male and female cocaine users. Pharmacol Biochem Behav 2004; 78: 699705.
  • 275
    Evans SM, Foltin RW. Exogenous progesterone attenuates the subjective effects of smoked cocaine in women, but not in men. Neuropsychopharmacology 2006; 31: 659.
  • 276
    Justice AJ, de Wit H. Acute effects of d-amphetamine during the follicular and luteal phases of the menstrual cycle in women. Psychopharmacology 1999; 145: 6775.
  • 277
    Sofuoglu M, Dudish-Poulsen S, Nelson D, Pentel PR, Hatsukami DK. Sex and menstrual cycle differences in the subjective effects from smoked cocaine in humans. Exp Clin Psychopharmacol 1999; 7: 274283.
  • 278
    Cunningham F, Leveno K, Bloom S, Hauth J, Gilstrap L, Wenstrom K. Williams Obstetrics 2005.
  • 279
    SAmhsa SAaMHSA. Results from the 2007 National Survey on Drug Use and Health: National Findings. Rockville, MD: Office of Applied Studies, 2007; 1290.
  • 280
    Ebrahim SH, Diekman ST, Floyd RL, Decoufle P. Comparison of binge drinking among pregnant and nonpregnant women, United States, 1991–1995. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1999; 181: 17.
  • 281
    Ebrahim SH, Gfroerer J. Pregnancy-related substance use in the United States during 1996–1998. Obstet Gynecol 2003; 101: 374379.
  • 282
    Regier DA, Farmer ME, Rae DS, Locke BZ, Keith SJ, Judd LL, Goodwin FK. Comorbidity of mental disorders with alcohol and other drug abuse. Results from the Epidemiologic Catchment Area (ECA) study. JAMA 1990; 264: 25112518.
  • 283
    Levin FR, Hennessy G. Bipolar disorder and substance abuse. Biol Psychiatry 2004; 56: 738748.
  • 284
    Kessler RC, Chiu WT, Demler O, Merikangas KR, Walters EE. Prevalence, severity, and comorbidity of 12-month DSM-IV disorders in the National Comorbidity Survey Replication. Arch Gen Psychiatry 2005; 62: 617627.
  • 285
    Hasin DS, Stinson FS, Ogburn E, Grant BF. Prevalence, correlates, disability, and comorbidity of DSM-IV alcohol abuse and dependence in the United States: results from the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions. Arch Gen Psychiatry 2007; 64: 830842.
  • 286
    Dixon L, McNary S, Lehman A. One-year follow-up of secondary versus primary mental disorder in persons with comorbid substance use disorders. Am J Psychiatry 1997; 154: 16101612.
  • 287
    Havassy BE, Alvidrez J, Owen KK, Shopshire MS, Quigley LA, Dixon L, McNary S, Lehman A. Comparisons of patients with comorbid psychiatric and substance use disorders: implications for treatment and service delivery. Am J Psychiatry 2004; 161: 139145.
  • 288
    Rounsaville BJ, Dolinsky ZS, Babor TF, Meyer RE. Psychopathology as a predictor of treatment outcome in alcoholics. Arch Gen Psychiatry 1987; 44: 505513.
  • 289
    Brady KT, Sinha R. Co-occuring mental and substance use disorders: the neurobiological effects of chronic stress. Am J Psychiatry 2005; 162: 14831493.
  • 290
    McLellan AT, Luborsky L, Woody GE, O'Brien CP, Druley KA. Predicting response to alcohol and drug treatments: role of psychiatric severity. Arch Gen Psychiatry 1983; 40: 620625.
  • 291
    Rounsaville BJ, Kosten TR, Weissman MM, Kleber HD. Prognostic significance of psychopathology in treated opiate addicts. Arch Gen Psychiatry 1986; 43: 739745.
  • 292
    Chambers RA, Krystal JH, Self DW. A neurobiological basis for substance abuse comorbidity in schizophrenia. Biol Psychiatry 2001; 50: 7183.
  • 293
    Meyer RE. How to understand the relationship between psychopathology and addictive disorders: another example of the chicken and the egg. In: Psychopathology and Addictive Disorders, ed. Meyer RE . New York: Guilford Press, 1986; 316.
  • 294
    Rounsaville BJ, Anton SF, Carroll KM, Budde D, Prusoff BA, Gawin FI. Psychiatric diagnosis of treatment seeking cocaine abusers. Arch Gen Psychiatry 1991; 48: 4351.
  • 295
    Nunes EV, Levin FR. Treatment of depression in patients with alcohol or other drug dependence: a meta-analysis. JAMA 2004; 291: 18871896.
  • 296
    Gorelick DA, Gardner EL, Xi ZX. Agents in development for the management of cocaine abuse. Drugs 2004; 64: 15471573.
  • 297
    Chambers RA, Bickel WK, Potenza MN. A scale-free systems theory of motivation and addiction. Neurosci Biobehav Rev 2007; 31: 10171045.
  • 298
    Anton RF, Oroszi G, O'Malley S, Couper D, Swift R, Pettinati H, Goldman D. An evaluation of mu-opioid receptor (OPRM1) as a predictor of naltrexone response in the treatment of alcohol dependence: results from the Combined Pharmacotherapies and Behavioral Interventions for Alcohol Dependence (COMBINE) study. Arch Gen Psychiatry 2008; 65: 135144.
  • 299
    Oslin DW, Berrettini W, Kranzler HR, Pettinati H, Gelernter J, Volpicelli JR, O'Brien CP. A functional polymorphism of the mu-opioid receptor gene is associated with naltrexone response in alcohol-dependent patients. Neuropsychopharmacology 2003; 28: 15461552.
  • 300
    Ray LA, Hutchison KE. Effects of naltrexone on alcohol sensitivity and genetic moderators of medication response: a double-blind placebo-controlled study. Arch Gen Psychiatry 2007; 64: 10691077.
  • 301
    Lerman C, Tyndale R, Patterson F, Wileyto EP, Shields PG, Pinto A, Benowitz N. Nicotine metabolite ratio predicts efficacy of transdermal nicotine for smoking cessation[ast]. Clin Pharmacol Ther 2006; 79: 600608.
  • 302
    Malaiyandi V, Lerman C, Benowitz NL, Jepson C, Patterson F, Tyndale RF. Impact of CYP2A6 genotype on pretreatment smoking behaviour and nicotine levels from and usage of nicotine replacement therapy. Mol Psychiatry 2006; 11: 400409.
  • 303
    Schnoll RA, Patterson F, Wileyto EP, Tyndale RF, Benowitz N, Lerman C. Nicotine metabolic rate predicts successful smoking cessation with transdermal nicotine: a validation study. Pharmacol Biochem Behav 2009; 92: 611.
  • 304
    Sturgess JE, George TP, Kennedy JL, Heinz A, Muller DJ. Pharmacogenetics of alcohol, nicotine and drug addiction treatments. Addict Biol 2011; 16: 357376.
  • 305
    Ho MK, Goldman D, Heinz A, Kaprio J, Kreek MJ, Li MD, Munafò MR, Tyndale RF. Breaking barriers in the genomics and pharmacogenetics of drug addiction. Clin Pharmacol Ther 2010; 88: 779791.
  • 306
    Adams CP, Brantner VV. Spending on new drug development1. Health Econ 2010; 19: 130141.
  • 307
    Paterson NE. Translational research in addiction: toward a framework for the development of novel therapeutics. Biochem Pharmacol [Review]. 2011; 81: 13881407.