Evidence for genetic homogeneity of Setleis' syndrome and focal facial dermal dysplasia



Summary A healthy 14-month-old boy had multiple, circular, scar-like depressions on both temples, which had been present since birth. Delivery had been normal, and had not required the use of forceps or other instruments. His mother and one sister had similar, but less obvious, lesions on the temples. The three affected family members had similar facial features, with laterally deficient eyebrows, and a prominent upper lip with down-turned mouth. Additional features in the baby were sparse lower eyelashes, medial epicanthal folds, and skin dimpling on one side of the chin.

Focal facial dermal dysplasia (FFDD) denotes a condition in which there are bitemporal, round, scarlike lesions. It is inherited as an autosomal dominant trait with variable penetrance and expressivity, and there are no associated features. Setleis' syndrome is recessively inherited, and is characterized by similar bitemporal defects associated with other dysmorphic features, including deficient eyelashes and a prominent upper lip. This report of dominantly inherited bitemporal dermal defects with characteristic facies supports the idea that FFDD and Setleis' syndrome are a single disorder.