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Late lethal hepatitis B virus reactivation after rituximab treatment of low-grade cutaneous B-cell lymphoma

Authors

  • G. Perceau,

    1. CHU de Reims, Hôpital Robert-Debré, Service de Dermatologie et *Service de Gastroentérologie, avenue du Général Koenig, 51092 Reims Cedex, France
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  • N. Diris,

    1. CHU de Reims, Hôpital Robert-Debré, Service de Dermatologie et *Service de Gastroentérologie, avenue du Général Koenig, 51092 Reims Cedex, France
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  • O. Estines,

    1. CHU de Reims, Hôpital Robert-Debré, Service de Dermatologie et *Service de Gastroentérologie, avenue du Général Koenig, 51092 Reims Cedex, France
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  • C. Derancourt,

    1. CHU de Reims, Hôpital Robert-Debré, Service de Dermatologie et *Service de Gastroentérologie, avenue du Général Koenig, 51092 Reims Cedex, France
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  • S. Lévy,

    1. CHU de Reims, Hôpital Robert-Debré, Service de Dermatologie et *Service de Gastroentérologie, avenue du Général Koenig, 51092 Reims Cedex, France
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  • P. Bernard

    1. CHU de Reims, Hôpital Robert-Debré, Service de Dermatologie et *Service de Gastroentérologie, avenue du Général Koenig, 51092 Reims Cedex, France
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  • Conflicts of interest
    None declared.

Pr P. Bernard.
E-mail: pbernard@chu-reims.fr

Summary

The chimeric anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody, rituximab, is a promising treatment for cutaneous B-cell lymphomas. Classically used in combination with a multiagent-chemotherapy regimen, it can sometimes give excellent results alone. Because of its selective action on B lymphocytes, it is considered a moderate immunosuppressant in terms of infection. We describe a woman with relapsed cutaneous follicular centre B-cell lymphoma and secondary lymph-node involvement treated with rituximab alone, which induced a complete remission. One year later, she experienced a fatal hepatitis B virus (HBV) reactivation. Several such HBV reactivations were reported after combined rituximab and multiagent chemotherapy for B-cell lymphomas. This is the first case of HBV reactivation occurring during the year following rituximab monotherapy in the absence of any other immunosuppressive factor.

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