Conflicts of interest This study was funded by Procter & Gamble Beauty, Cincinnati, OH, U.S.A. A.B.K. has served as consultant and investigator and has received grants and honoraria from Procter & Gamble Beauty. J.R.K., J.L., L.R.R. and K.M. are employees of Procter & Gamble Beauty. C.A.B. and D.L.B. were employees of Procter & Gamble Beauty at the time of the study. P.J.M. is an employee of the Procter & Gamble Company, Egham, Surrey, U.K.
Reduction in the appearance of facial hyperpigmentation after use of moisturizers with a combination of topical niacinamide and N-acetyl glucosamine: results of a randomized, double-blind, vehicle-controlled trial
Article first published online: 28 AUG 2009
© 2009 The Authors. Journal Compilation © 2009 British Association of Dermatologists
British Journal of Dermatology
Volume 162, Issue 2, pages 435–441, February 2010
How to Cite
Kimball, A.B., Kaczvinsky, J.R., Li, J., Robinson, L.R., Matts, P.J., Berge, C.A., Miyamoto, K. and Bissett, D.L. (2010), Reduction in the appearance of facial hyperpigmentation after use of moisturizers with a combination of topical niacinamide and N-acetyl glucosamine: results of a randomized, double-blind, vehicle-controlled trial. British Journal of Dermatology, 162: 435–441. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2133.2009.09477.x
These data have been shared in part as a poster at the meeting of the American Academy of Dermatology (San Francisco, March 2006) and in the Royal Society of Medicine International Congress and Symposium Series 264, 2005 [McClanahan S. N-acetyl glucosamine/niacinamide combination – comparative clinical studies in skin hyperpigmentation. In: Reduction of Skin Hyperpigmentation – Cosmetic Considerations (Gray J, ed.; Bissett D, Matts P, McClanahan S, Grammer K, Kimball A, associate eds). London: Royal Society of Medicine Press, Ltd, 2007; 19–29].
- Issue published online: 13 JAN 2010
- Article first published online: 28 AUG 2009
- Accepted for publication 18 August 2009
- N-acetyl glucosamine;
- randomized controlled trial
Background Topical niacinamide and N-acetyl glucosamine (NAG) each individually inhibit epidermal pigmentation in cell culture. In small clinical studies, niacinamide-containing and NAG-containing formulations reduced the appearance of hyperpigmentation.
Objectives To assess the effect of a combination of niacinamide and NAG in a topical moisturizing formulation on irregular facial pigmentation, including specific detection of changes in colour features associated with melanin.
Methods This was a 10-week, double-blind, vehicle-controlled, full-face, parallel-group clinical study conducted in women aged 40–60 years. After a 2-week washout period, subjects used a daily regimen of either a morning sun protection factor (SPF) 15 sunscreen moisturizing lotion and evening moisturizing cream each containing 4% niacinamide + 2% NAG (test formulation; n = 101) or the SPF 15 lotion and cream vehicles (vehicle control; n = 101). Product-induced changes in apparent pigmentation were assessed by capturing digital photographic images of the women after 0, 4, 6 and 8 weeks of product use and evaluating the images by algorithm-based computer image analysis for coloured spot area fraction, by expert visual grading, and by chromophore-specific image analysis based on noncontact SIAscopy™ for melanin spot area fraction and melanin chromophore evenness.
Results By all four measures, the niacinamide + NAG formulation regimen was significantly (P < 0·05) more effective than the vehicle control formulation regimen in reducing the detectable area of facial spots and the appearance of pigmentation.
Conclusions A formulation containing the combination of niacinamide + NAG reduced the appearance of irregular pigmentation including hypermelaninization, providing an effect beyond that achieved with SPF 15 sunscreen.