The effect of riboflavin on nitrite treated erythrocytes from normal subjects and patients with hereditary methaemoglobinaemia due to the deficiency of NADH-cytochrome b5 reductase was studied in the presence of glucose, 2-deoxy-d-glucose or lactate. When glucose or 2-deoxy-d-glucose was used as a substrate for these erythrocytes, the rate of methaemoglobin reduction in these cells was accelerated more than two-fold in the presence of riboflavin. The acceleration was dependent on the concentration of riboflavin and was suppressed by the addition of atebrin. The stimulative effect of riboflavin was, however, not observed when lactate was used in place of glucose or 2-deoxy-d-glucose. On the basis of these results, the acceleration of methaemoglobin reduction by riboflavin was considered to be due to the activation of NADPH-flavin reductase (Yubisui et al, 1977) in erythrocytes by the reagent. The availability of riboflavin for patients with methaemoglobinaemia due to the deficiency of NADH-cytochrome b5 reductase and for those with toxic methaemoglobinaemia is discussed in relation to methaemoglobin reducing systems in erythrocytes.