Summary. Plasma levels of protein C and protein S antigens were measured in eight children who developed thrombosis following asparaginase-prednisone-vincristine treatment for acute lymphoblastic leukaemia and in nine similarly treated children without this complication. Protein C antigen levels were below normal in three of the eight patients with thrombosis and in three of the nine patients without the complication (P= 0-38). Low protein S antigen levels were found in five of six patients with thrombosis and in two of seven patients without thrombosis (P=0-10). Plasma factor IX and factor X antigen levels, other vitamin K dependent factors, were also measured in the two groups of patients. In general, reduced levels of protein C, protein S or both antigens (anticoagulant vitamin K dependent proteins) were associated with reduced levels of factor IX, factor X, or both of these factors (procoagulant vitamin K dependent clotting proteins). The ratios of protein C and protein S antigens to each other and to factor IX and factor X antigens did not differ between the two groups. Thus, there is no clear evidence that reduced levels of protein C and (or) protein S cause thrombosis in leukaemia patients treated with this drug combination.