Sixty-one patients with AML, 59 adults and two children, were treated with intensive remission induction and consolidation therapy. The median age was 36 years. Forty-four (72%) patients entered complete remission (CR): 11 patients received a bone marrow transplantation. The median survival of complete remitters was 26.5 months; the probability of remaining in CR at respectively 1 and 2 years was 75% and 62%. The only factor significantly correlated with the outcome of remission induction, survival and duration of CR was age. Patients < 30 years fared significantly better than those 30 years or older; no difference in outcome was observed between patients aged 30-50 and those over 50 years. In patients < 30 years the CR rate was 95%; 75% of them were still alive at 2 years and only one (5%) has relapsed. In contrast, in patients 30 years or older the CR rate was 60% and the median survival only 11.5 months. 50% of the complete remitters in this age group have relapsed. Morbidity from intensive consolidation therapy was considerable; more than 50% of consolidation courses were complicated by high fever, needing urgent admission; only four (3%) courses had a fatal event. It is concluded that intensive consolidation therapy may be considered as a major advance in the treatment of younger patients with AML. while its role in older individuals remains questionable. A possible explanation for the completely different outcome in younger and older patients with AML is discussed.