A chromosomal translocation involving a breakpoint on the long arm of chromosome 5 at position q35 has been reported previously in 17 cases of neoplasia. In 14 of these cases the translocation involves exchange of material between chromosome 2 p23 and chromosome 5. Most cases had been diagnosed histologically as malignant histiocytosis but it was suggested recently, following the study of three cases in one of the author's laboratories, that such tumours are in reality lymphoid tumours. In the present paper we report on 12 further neoplasms with a translocation involving the 5q35 breakpoint and show that all were large cell lymphomas expressing the CD30 (Ki-1) antigen, often classifiable histologically as ‘Ki-1 lymphoma’. In five cases there was evidence, based on antigen expression and/or genotypic studies, that the neoplasm was of T lymphoid derivation. These findings provide further evidence that translocations involving 5q35 are associated not with histiocytic malignancy, but with large cell lymphoid neoplasms, including typical cases of ‘Ki-1 lymphoma’or anaplastic large cell lymphoma’. Since cell lines have been established from five of these cases it may be possible in the future to clone the breakpoint on chromosome 5 and to investigate whether there is a gene in its vicinity with oncongenic potential.