Summary In a subgroup of postmenopausal women vitamin K induced a decrease of the urnary calcium loss. This effect was significant (P < 0.0001) in the so-called fast losers of calcium (calcium/creatinine ratio > 0.5). To find out whether vitamin K antagonists would have an opposite effect, a study was started among 141 persons on long-term oral anticoagulant therapy. In this population the number of fast losers was recorded, and compared to that in a group of age- and sex-matched non-treated controls. Notably in young men the fraction of fast losers was significantly higher in the anticoagulant-treated group than in the control group (25 v 0%, P < 0.02). Differences between treated and non-treated groups may also be found in other markers for calcium and bone metabolism, notably in serum osteocalcin concentration and in urinary hydroxyproline excretion. The conclusion of our study is that oral anticoagulant treatment must be regarded as a potential risk factor for a high loss of urinary calcium.