Antiphospholipid antibodies (aPL), including antibodies detected in anti-cardiolipin (aCL) enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays and in lupus anticoagulant (LA) tests, are strongly associated with recurrent thrombosis and recurrent fetal loss, i.e. the antiphospholipid syndrome (APS). Although recent studies suggest that most APS-associated aCL are directed against the phospholipid (PL)-binding plasma protein β2-glycoprotein 1 (β2GP1), the precise nature of aCL binding specificities remains controversial. To address the issue of aCL specificity we generated five new monoclonal IgG aCL from two patients with APS. Characterization of these five aCL, as well as two previously published IgG aCL, revealed three patterns of reactivity: (1) four antibodies reacted strongly with human β2GP1-cardiolipin (CL) complexes and weakly with human β2GP1 alone; (2) two antibodies recognized bovine β2GP1, but not human β2GP1; (3) one antibody reacted with complexes of human β2GP1 and CL, but not with human β2GP1 alone. Only one monoclonal displayed weak LA activity. These patient-derived IgG monoclonal antibodies, and additional ones to be generated, may help define varying species of antibodies detected in aCL assays and identify the specific antibodies that may be pathogenic.