SEARCH

SEARCH BY CITATION

References

  • Akin, M.L., Gulluoglu, B.M., Erenoglu, K., Terzi, K., Erdemoglu, A. & Celenk, T. (2002) Hyperbaric oxygen prevents bacterial translocation in thermally injured rats. Journal of Investigative Surgery, 15, 303310.
  • Alexander, J.W., Boyce, S.T., Babcock, G.F., Gianotti, L., Peck, M.D., Dunn, D.L., Pyles, T., Childress, C.P. & Ash, S.K. (1990) The process of microbial translocation. Annals of Surgery, 212, 496510.
  • Alvila, J. (1987) Microtubule function. Life Sciences, 50, 327333.
  • Ammori, B.J., Fitzgerald, P., Hawkey, P. & McMahon, M.J. (2003) The early increase in intestinal permeability and systemic endotoxin exposure in patients with severe acute pancreatitis is not associated with systemic bacterial translocation: molecular investigation of microbial DNA in the blood. Pancreas, 26, 1822.
  • Andrews, F.J. & Griffiths, R.D. (2002) Glutamine: essential for immune nutrition in the critically ill. British Journal of Nutrition, 87(Suppl. 1), S38.
  • Banan, A., Fields, J.Z., Farhadi, A., Talmage, D.A., Zhang, L. & Keshavarzian, A. (2002) Activation of delta-isoform of protein kinase C is required for oxidant-induced disruption of both the microtubule cytoskeleton and permeability barrier of intestinal epithelia. Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental therapeutics, 303, 1728.
  • Baylor, A.E., Diebel, L.N., Liberatii, D.M., Dulchavsky, S.A., Diglio, C.A. & Brown, W.J. (2003) The effects of varying oxygen conditions and immunoglobulin A on barrier defense to bacterial invasion. American Surgeon, 69, 231237.
  • Benoit, R., Rowe, S., Watkins, S.C., Boyle, P., Garrett, M., Alber, S., Wiener, J., Rowe, M.I. & Ford, H.R. (1998) Pure endotoxin does not pass across the intestinal epithelium in vitro. Shock 10, 4348.
  • Berg, R.D. (1981) Promotion of the translocation of enteric bacteria from the gastrointestinal tracts of mice by oral treatment with penicillin, clindamycin, or metronidazole. Infection and Immunity, 33, 854861.
  • Berg, R.D. (1983) Bacterial translocation from the gastrointestinal tracts of mice receiving immunosuppressive chemotherapeutic agents. Current Microbiology, 8, 285292.
  • Berg, R.D. (1995) Bacterial translocation from the gastrointestinal tract. Trends in Microbiology, 3, 149154.
  • Berg, R.D. & Garlington, A.W. (1979) Translocation of certain indigenous bacteria from the gastrointestinal tract to the mesenteric lymph nodes and other organs in a gnotobiotic mouse model. Infection and Immunity, 23, 403411.
  • Berg, R.D., Wommack, E. & Deitch, E.A. (1988) Immunosuppression and intestinal bacterial overgrowth synergistically promote bacterial translocation. Archives of Surgery, 123, 13591364.
  • Bodey, G.P., Rodriguez, V., Chang, H.Y. & Narboni, G. (1978) Fever and infection in leukemic patients: a study of 494 consecutive patients. Cancer, 41, 16101622.
  • Bow, E.J., Mandell, L.A., Louie, T.J., Feld, R., Palmer, M., Zee, B. & Pater, J. (1996) Quinolone-based antibacterial chemoprophylaxis in neutropenic patients: effect of augmented gram-positive activity on infectious morbidity. National Cancer Institute of Canada Clinical Trials Group. Annals of Internal Medicine, 125, 183190.
  • Bow, E.J., Laverdiere, M., Lussier, N., Rotstein, C., Cheang, M.S. & Ioannou, S. (2002) Antifungal prophylaxis for severely neutropenic chemotherapy recipients: a meta analysis of randomized-controlled clinical trials. Cancer, 94, 32303246.
  • Brook, I., Walker, R.I. & MacVittie, T.J. (1986) Effect of radiation dose on the recovery of aerobic and anaerobic bacteria from mice. Canadian Journal of Microbiology, 32, 719722.
  • Campillo, B., Pernet, P., Bories, P.N., Richardet, J.P., Devanlay, M. & Aussel, C. (1999) Intestinal permeability in liver cirrhosis: relationship with severe septic complications. European Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, 11, 755759.
  • Cicalese, L., Sileri, P., Green, M., Abu-Elmagd, K., Kocoshis, S. & Reyes, J. (2001) Bacterial translocation in clinical intestinal transplantation. Transplantation, 71, 14141417.
  • Clark, M.A. & Jepson, M.A. (2003) Intestinal M cells and their role in bacterial infection. International Journal of Medical Microbiology, 293, 1739.
  • Cornely, O.A., Ullmann, A.J. & Karthaus, M. (2003) Evidence-based assessment of primary antifungal prophylaxis in patients with hematologic malignancies. Blood, 101, 33653372.
  • Crabbe, P.A., Bazin, H., Eyssen, H. & Heremans, J.F. (1968) The normal microbial flora as a major stimulus for proliferation of plasma cells synthesizing IgA in the gut. The germ-free intestinal tract. International Archives of Allergy and Applied Immunology, 34, 362375.
  • Cunningham, D., Morgan, R.J., Mills, P.R., Nelson, L.M., Toner, P.G., Soukop, M., McArdle, C.S. & Russell, R.I. (1985) Functional and structural changes of the human proximal small intestine after cytotoxic therapy. Journal of Clinical Pathology, 38, 265270.
  • Davies, N.M. & Jamali, F. (1997) Pharmacological protection of NSAID-induced intestinal permeability in the rat: effect of tempo and metronidazole as potential free radical scavengers. Human and Experimental Toxicology, 16, 345349.
  • De Jonge, E., Schultz, M.J., Spanjaard, L., Bossuyt, P.M.M.M., Vroom, M.B., Dankert, J. & Kesecioglu, J. (2003) Effects of selective decontamination of digestive tract on mortality and acquisition of resistant bacteria in intensive care: a randomized controlled trial. Lancet, 362, 10111016.
  • Deitch, E.A., Winterton, J., Li, M. & Berg, R. (1987) The gut as a portal of entry for bacteremia. Role of protein malnutrition. Annals of Surgery, 205, 681692.
  • Deitch, E.A., Bridges, W., Berg, R., Specian, R.D. & Granger, D.N. (1990) Hemorrhagic shock-induced bacterial translocation: the role of neutrophils and hydroxyl radicals. Journal of Trauma, 30, 942951, discussion 951–952.
  • Desai, M.H., Herndon, D.N., Rutan, R.L., Abston, S. & Linares, H.A. (1991) Ischemic intestinal complications in patients with burns. Surgical Gynecology and Obstetrics, 172, 257261.
  • Dickinson, E.C., Gorga, J.C., Garrett, M., Tuncer, R., Boyle, P., Watkins, S.C., Alber, S.M., Parizhskaya, M., Trucco, M., Rowe, M.I. & Ford, H.R. (1998) Immunoglobulin A supplementation abrogates bacterial translocation and preserves the architecture of the intestinal epithelium. Surgery, 124, 284290.
  • Dickinson, E., Tuncer, R., Nadler, E., Boyle, P., Alber, S., Watkins, S. & Ford, H. (1999) NOX, a novel nitric oxide scavenger, reduces bacterial translocation in rats after endotoxin challenge. American Journal of Physiology, 277(6 Pt 1), G12811287.
  • Drucker, D.J. (2003) Glucagon-like peptides: regulators of cell proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis. Molecular Endocrinology, 17, 161171.
  • Eaves-Pyles, T. & Alexander, J.W. (1996) Granulocyte colony-stimulating factor enhances killing of translocated bacteria but does not affect barrier function in a burn mouse model. Journal of Trauma, 41, 10131017.
  • Ellis, M., Zwaan, F., Hedstrom, U., Poynton, C., Kristensen, J., Jumaa, P., Wassell, J. & Al-Ramadi, B. (2003) Recombinant human interleukin 11 and bacterial infection in patients with (correction of) haematological malignant disease undergoing chemotherapy: a double-blind placebo-controlled randomised trial. Lancet, 361, 275280.
  • Faries, P.L., Simon, R.J., Martella, A.T., Lee, M.J. & Machiedo, G.W. (1998) Intestinal permeability correlates with severity of injury in trauma patients. Journal of Trauma, 44, 10311035.
  • Fazal, N., Shamim, M., Khan, S.S., Gamelli, R.L. & Sayeed, M.M. (2000) Neutrophil depletion in rats reduces burn-injury induced intestinal bacterial translocation. Critical Care Medicine, 28, 15501555.
  • Fegan, C., Poynton, C.H. & Whittaker, J.A. (1990) The gut mucosal barrier in bone marrow transplantation. Bone Marrow Transplantation, 5, 373377.
  • Foitzik, T., Kruschewski, M., Kroesen, A.J., Hotz, H.G., Eibl, G. & Buhr, H.J. (1999) Does glutamine reduce bacterial translocation? A study in two animal models with impaired gut barrier. International Journal of Colorectal Disease, 14, 143149.
  • Forsythe, R.M., Xu, D.Z., Lu, Q. & Deitch, E.A. (2002) Lipopolysaccharide-induced enterocyte-derived nitric oxide induces intestinal monolayer permeability in an autocrine fashion. Shock, 17, 180184.
  • Fox, A.D., Kripke, S.A., De Paula, J., Berman, J.M., Settle, R.G. & Rombeau, J.L. (1988) Effect of a glutamine-supplemented enteral diet on methotrexate-induced enterocolitis. Journal of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition, 12, 325331.
  • Garcia-Lafuente, A., Antolin, M., Guarner, F., Crespo, E. & Malagelada, J.R. (2001) Modulation of colonic barrier function by the composition of the commensal flora in the rat. Gut, 48, 503507.
  • Gautreaux, M.D., Gelder, F.B., Deitch, E.A. & Berg, R.D. (1995) Adoptive transfer of T lymphocytes to T-cell-depleted mice inhibits Escherichia coli translocation from the gastrointestinal tract. Infection and Immunity, 63, 38273834.
  • Gennari, R. & Alexander, J.W. (1996) Effects of hyperoxia on bacterial translocation and mortality during gut-derived sepsis. Archives of Surgery, 131, 5762.
  • Gennari, R., Alexander, J.W., Gianotti, L., Eaves-Pyles, T. & Hartmann, S. (1994) Granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor improves survival in two models of gut-derived sepsis by improving gut barrier function and modulating bacterial clearance. Annals of Surgery, 220, 6876.
  • Goodman, J.L., Winston, D.J., Greenfield, R.A., Chandrasekar, P.H., Fox, B., Kaizer, H., Shadduck, R.K., Shea, T.C., Stiff, P., Friedman, D.J., Powderly, W.G., Silber, J.L., Horowitz, H., Lichten, A., Wolff, S.N., Mancan, K.F., Silver, S.M., Weisdorf, D., Ho, W.G., Gilbert, G. & Buell, D. (1992) A controlled trial of fluconazole to prevent fungal infections in patients undergoing bone marrow transplantation. New England Journal of Medicine, 326, 845851.
  • Gotzsche, P.C. & Johansen, H.K. (1997) Meta-analysis of prophylactic or empirical antifungal treatment versus placebo or no treatment in patients with cancer complicated by neutropenia. British Medical Journal, 314, 12381244.
  • Gustafsson, B.E., Midtvedt, T. & Strandberg, K. (1970) Effects of microbial contamination on the cecum enlargement of germfree rats. Scandinavian Journal of Gastroenterology, 5, 309314.
  • Heyland, D.K., Dhaliwal, R., Drover, J.W., Gramlich, L. & Dodek, P. (2003) Canadian Critical Care Clinical Practice Guidelines Committee. Canadian clinical practice guidelines for nutrition support in mechanically ventilated, critically ill adult patients. Journal of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition, 27, 355373.
  • Hooper, L.V., Wong, M.H., Thelin, A., Hansson, L., Falk, P.G. & Gordon, J.I. (2001) Molecular analysis of commensal host-microbial relationships in the intestine. Science, 291, 881884.
  • Hughes, W.T., Armstrong, D., Gerald, P.B., Bow, E.J., Brown, A.E., Calandra, T., Feld, R., Pizzo, P.A., Rolston, K.V.I., Shenep, J.L. & Young L.S. (2002) 2002 Guidelines for the use of antimicrobial agents in neutropenic patients with cancer. Clinical Infectious Diseases, 34, 730751.
  • Inoue, S., Wirman, J.A., Alexander, J.W., Trocki, O. & Cardell, R.R. (1988) Candida albicans translocation across the gut mucosa following burn injury. Journal of Surgical Research, 44, 479492.
  • Jolliet, P. & Pichard, C. (1999) Immunonutrition in the critically ill. Intensive Care Medicine, 25, 631633.
  • Keefe, D.M., Cummins, A.G., Dale, B.M., Kotasek, D., Robb, T.A. & Sage, R.E. (1997) Effect of high-dose chemotherapy on intestinal permeability in humans. Clinical Science (London), 92, 385389.
  • Keefe, D.M., Brealey, J., Goland, G.J. & Cummins, A.G. (2000) Chemotherapy for cancer causes apoptosis that precedes hypoplasia in crypts of the small intestine in humans. Gut, 47, 632637.
  • Krause, W., Matheis, H. & Wulf, K. (1969) Fungaemia and funguria after oral administration of Candida albicans. Lancet, 1, 598599.
  • Kukuruzovic, R., Brewster, D.R., Gray, E. & Anstey, N.M. (2003) Increased nitric oxide production in acute diarrhoea is associated with abnormal gut permeability, hypokalaemia and malnutrition in tropical Australian aboriginal children. Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, 97, 115120.
  • Lee, Y.K., Puong, K.Y., Ouwehand, A.C. & Salminen, S. (2003) Displacement of bacterial pathogens from mucus and CaCo_2 cell surface by lactobacilli. Journal of Medical Microbiology, 52, 925930.
  • LeVoyer, T., Cioffi, W.G. Jr, Pratt, L., Shippee, R., McManus, W.F., Mason, A.D. Jr & Pruitt, B.A. Jr (1992) Alterations in intestinal permeability after thermal injury. Archives of Surgery, 127, 2629.
  • Liu, Q., Djuricin, G., Nathan, C., Gattuso, P., Weinstein, R.A. & Prinz, R.A. (2000) The effect of interleukin-6 on bacterial translocation in acute canine pancreatitis. International Journal of Pancreatology, 27, 157165.
  • Lu, L. & Walker, W.A. (2001) Pathologic and physiologic interactions of bacteria with the gastrointestinal epithelium. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 73, 1124S1130S.
  • Lyman, G.H., Kuderer, N.M. & Djulbegovic, B. (2002) Prophylactic granulocyte colony-stimulating factor in patients receiving dose-intensive cancer chemotherapy: a meta-analysis. American Journal of Medicine, 112, 406411.
  • Madara, J.L. (1990) Pathobiology of the intestinal epithelial barrier. American Journal of Pathology, 137, 12731281.
  • Mao, Y., Nobaek, S., Kasravi, B., Adawi, D., Stenram, U., Molin, G. & Jeppsson, B. (1996) The effects of Lactobacillus strains and oat fiber on methotrexate-induced enterocolitis in rats. Gastroenterology, 111, 334344.
  • Mattar, A.F., Drongowski, R.A., Coran, A.G. & Harmon, C.M. (2001) Effect of probiotics on enterocyte bacterial translocation in vitro. Pediatric Surgery International, 17, 265268.
  • Melichar, B., Kohout, P., Bratova, M., Solichova, D., Kralickova, P. & Zadak, Z. (2001) Intestinal permeability in patients with chemotherapy-induced stomatitis. Journal of Cancer Research and Clinical Oncology, 127, 314318.
  • Miyazaki, S., Fujikawa, T., Kobayashi, I., Matsumoto, T., Tateda, K. & Yamaguchi, K. (2001) Development of systemic bacteraemia after oral inoculation of vancomycin-resistant enterococci in mice. Journal of Medical Microbiology, 50, 695701.
  • Moore, F.A., Moore, E.E., Poggetti, R., McAnena, O.J., Peterson, V.M., Abernathy, C.M. & Parsons, P.E. (1991) Gut bacterial translocation via the portal vein: a clinical perspective with major torso trauma. Journal of Trauma, 31, 629636.
  • Moore, F.A., Moore, E.E., Poggetti, R.S. & Read, R.A. (1992) Postinjury shock and early bacteremia. A lethal combination. Archives of Surgery, 127, 893897.
  • Nakamaru, M., Masubuchi, Y., Narimatsu, S., Awazu, S. & Horie, T. (1998) Evaluation of damaged small intestine of mouse following methotrexate administration. Cancer Chemotherapy and Pharmacology, 41, 98102.
  • Naruhashi, K., Nadai, M., Nakao, M., Suzuki, N., Nabeshima, T. & Hasegawa, T. (2000) Changes in absorptive function of rat intestine injured by methotrexate. Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology and Physiology, 27, 980986.
  • Nettelbladt, C.G., Katouli, M., Volpe, A., Bark, T., Muratov, V., Svenberg, T., Mollby, R. & Ljungqvist, O. (1997) Starvation increases the number of coliform bacteria in the caecum and induces bacterial adherence to caecal epithelium in rats. European Journal of Surgery, 163, 135142.
  • Nieuwenhuijs, V.B., Verheem, A., van Duijvenbode-Beumer, H., Visser, M.R., Verhoef, J., Gooszen, H.G. & Akkermans, L.M. (1998) The role of interdigestive small bowel motility in the regulation of gut microflora, bacterial overgrowth, and bacterial translocation in rats. Annals of Surgery, 228, 188193.
  • O'Boyle, C.J., MacFie, J., Dave, K., Sagar, P.S., Poon, P. & Mitchell, C.J. (1998) Alterations in intestinal barrier function do not predispose to translocation of enteric bacteria in gastroenterologic patients. Nutrition, 14, 358362.
  • Opal, S.M., Jhung, J.W., Keith, J.C. Jr, Palardy, J.E., Parejo, N.A., Young, L.D. & Bhattacharjee, A. (1998) Recombinant human interleukin-11 in experimental Pseudomonas aeruginosa sepsis in immunocompromised animals. Journal of Infectious Diseases, 178, 12051208.
  • Opal, S.M., Jhung, J.W., Keith, Jr, J.C., Goldman, S.J., Palardy, J.E. & Parejo, N.A. (1999) Additive effects of human recombinant interleukin-11 and granulocyte colony-stimulating factor in experimental gram-negative sepsis. Blood, 93, 34673472.
  • Opal, S.M., Keith, J.C. Jr, Jhung, J., Palardy, J.E., Parejo, N., Marchese, E. & Maganti, V. (2003) Orally administered recombinant human interleukin-11 is protective in experimental neutropenic sepsis. Journal of Infectious Diseases, 187, 7076.
  • Ortega, M., de Segura, I.A., Vazquez, I., Lopez, J.M. & De Miguel, E. (2001) Growth hormone and nutrition as protective agents against methotrexate induced enteritis. Revista Espanola de Enfermedades Digestivas, 93, 148155.
  • Owens, W.E. & Berg, R.D. (1980) Bacterial translocation from the gastrointestinal tract of athymic (nu/nu) mice. Infection and Immunity, 27, 461467.
  • Ozer, H., Armitage, J.O., Bennett, C.L., Crawford, J., Demetri, G.D., Pizzo, P.A., Schiffer, C.A., Smith, T.J., Somlo, G., Wade, J.C., Wade, J.L. 3rd, Winn, R.J., Wozniak, A.J. & Somerfield Mrfor the American Society of Clinical Oncology (2000) 2000 update of recommendations for the use of hematopoietic colony-stimulating factors: evidence-based, clinical practice guidelines. American Society of Clinical Oncology Growth Factors Expert Panel. Journal of Clinical Oncology, 18, 35583585.
  • Pearson, A.D., Craft, A.W., Pledger, J.V., Eastham, E.J., Laker, M.F. & Pearson, G.L. (1984) Small bowel function in acute lymphoblastic leukaemia. Archives of Disease in Childhood, 59, 460465.
  • Perkkio, M., Rajantie, J., Savilahti, E. & Siimes, M.A. (1984) Jejunal mucosa after leukemia treatment in children. Increase of crypt mitotic activity, decrease of intraepithelial lymphocytes and IgA-cells. Acta Paediatrica Scandinavica, 73, 680684.
  • Potoka, D.A., Nadler, E.P., Upperman, J.S. & Ford, H.R. (2002) Role of nitric oxide and peroxynitrite in gut barrier failure. World Journal of Surgery, 26, 806811.
  • Rachmilewitz, D., Karmeli, F., Okon, E., Rubenstein, I. & Better, O.S. (1998) Hyperbaric oxygen: a novel modality to ameliorate experimental colitis. Gut, 43, 512518.
  • Rescigno, M., Rotta, G., Valzasina, B. & Ricciardi-Castagnoli, P. (2001) Dendritic cells shuttle microbes across gut epithelial monolayers. Immunobiology, 204, 572581.
  • Reynolds, J.V., Murchan, P., Redmond, H.P., Watson, R.W., Leonard, N., Hill, A., Clarke, P., Marks, P., Keane, F.B. & Tanner, W.A. (1995) Failure of macrophage activation in experimental obstructive jaundice: association with bacterial translocation. British Journal of Surgery, 82, 534538.
  • Rotstein, C., Bow, E.J., Laverdiere, M., Ioannou, S., Carr, D. & Moghaddam, N. (1999) Randomized placebo-controlled trial of fluconazole prophylaxis for neutropenic cancer patients: benefit based on purpose and intensity of cytotoxic therapy. The Canadian Fluconazole Prophylaxis Study Group. Clinical Infectious Diseases, 28, 331340.
  • Roumen, R.M., Hendriks, T., Wevers, R.A. & Goris, J.A. (1993) Intestinal permeability after severe trauma and hemorrhagic shock is increased without relation to septic complications. Archives of Surgery, 128, 453457.
  • Ruemmele, F.M., Beaulieu, J.F., Dionne, S., Levy, E., Seidman, E.G., Cerf-Bensussan, N. & Lentze, M.J. (2002) Lipopolysaccharide modulation of normal enterocyte turnover by toll-like receptors is mediated by endogenously produced tumour necrosis factor alpha. Gut, 51, 842848.
  • van Saene, H.K., Petros, A.J., Ramsay, G. & Baxby, D. (2003) All great truths are iconoclastic: selective decontamination of the digestive tract moves from heresy to level 1 truth. Intensive Care Medicine, 29, 677690.
  • Salzman, A.L., Wang, H., Wollert, P.S., Vandermeer, T.J., Compton, C.C., Denenberg, A.G. & Fink, M.P. (1994) Endotoxin-induced ileal mucosal hyperpermeability in pigs role of tissue acidosis. American Journal of Physiology, 266, 633646.
  • Sears, C.L. (2000) Molecular physiology and pathophysiology of tight junctions. V: Assault of the tight junction by enteric pathogens. American Journal of Physiology and Gastrointestinal Liver Physiology, 279, G11291134.
  • Sedman, P.C., Macfie, J., Sagar, P., Mitchell, C.J., May, J., Mancey-Jones, B. & Johnstone, D. (1994) The prevalence of gut translocation in humans. Gastroenterology, 107, 643649.
  • Slavin, M.A., Osborne, B., Adams, R., Levenstein, M.J., Schoch, H.G., Feldman, A.R., Meyers, J.D. & Bowden, R.A. (1995) Efficacy and safety of fluconazole prophylaxis for fungal infections after marrow transplantation – a prospective, randomized, double-blind study. Journal of Infectious Diseases, 171, 15451552.
  • Spaeth, G., Gottwald, T. & Hirner, A. (1995) Fibre is an essential ingredient of enteral diets to limit bacterial translocation in rats. European Journal of Surgery 161, 513518.
  • Steffen, E.K. & Berg, R.D. (1983) Relationship between cecal population levels of indigenous bacteria and translocation to the mesenteric lymph nodes. Infection and Immunity, 39, 12521259.
  • Straaten, H.M., van der Voort, P.J., Hoek, F.J., Bosman, R.J., van der Spoel, J.I. & Zandstra, D.F. (2001) Pitfalls in gastrointestinal permeability measurement in ICU patients with multiple organ failure using differential sugar absorption. Intensive Care Medicine, 28, 130138.
  • Takeuchi, A. (1967) Electron microscope studies of experimental Salmonella infection. I: Penetration into the intestinal epithelium by Salmonella typhimurium. American Journal of Pathology, 50, 109136.
  • Taminiau, J.A., Gall, D.G. & Hamilton, J.R. (1980) Response of the rat small-intestine epithelium to methotrexate. Gut, 21, 486492.
  • Tancrede, C.H. & Andremont, A.O. (1985) Bacterial translocation and gram-negative bacteremia in patients with hematological malignancies. Journal of Infectious Diseases, 152, 99103.
  • Tavakkolizadeh, A., Shen, R., Abraham, P., Kormi, N., Seifert, P., Edelman, E.R., Jacobs, D.O., Zinner, M.J., Ashley, S.W. & Whang, E.E. (2000) Glucagon-like peptide. 2: A new treatment for chemotherapy-induced enteritis. Journal of Surgical Research, 91, 7782.
  • Travies, S. & Menzies, I. (1992) Intestinal permeability: functional assessment and significance. Clinical Science, 82, 471488.
  • Van der Waaij, D.D., Vries, B. & Wees, J.E.C.L. (1971) Colonisation resistance of the digestive tract and spread of bacteria to the lymphatic organs in mice. Journal of Hygiene (Cambridge), 70, 342356.
  • Walsh, T.J., Lee, J., Lecciones, J., Rubin, M., Butler, K., Francis, P., Weinberger, M., Roilides, E., Marshall, D., Gress, J. & Pizzo, P. (1991) Empiric therapy with amphotericin B in febrile granulocyopenic patients. Reviews of Infectious Diseases, 13, 496503.
  • Wells, C.L., Maddaus, M.A., Reynolds, C.M., Jechorek, R.P. & Simmons, R.L. (1987) Role of anaerobic flora in the translocation of aerobic and facultatively anaerobic intestinal bacteria. Infection and Immunity, 55, 26892694.
  • Wells, C.L., Jechorek, R.P. & Erlandsen, S.L. (1990) Evidence for the translocation of Enterococcus faecalis across the mouse intestinal tract. Journal of Infectious Diseases, 162, 8290.
  • Wisplinghoff, H., Seifert, H., Wenzel, R.P. & Edmond, M.B. (2003) Current trends in the epidemiology of nosocomial bloodstream infections in patients with hematological malignancies and solid neoplasms in hospitals in the United States. Clinical Infectious Diseases, 36, 11031110.
  • Wolochow, H., Hildebrand, G.J. & Lamanna, C. (1966) Translocation of microorganisms across the intestinal wall of the rat: effect of microbial size and concentration. Journal of Infectious Diseases, 116, 523528.
  • Yang, R., Han, X., Uchiyama, T., Watkins, S.K., Yaguchi, A., Delude, R.L. & Fink, M.P. (2003) IL-6 is essential for development of gut barrier dysfunction after hemorrhagic shock and resuscitation in mice. American Journal of Physiology and Gastrointestinal Liver Physiology, 285, G621629.
  • Yao, Y.M., Bahrami, S., Leichtfried, G., Redl, H. & Schlag, G. (1995) Pathogenesis of hemorrhage-induced bacteria/endotoxin translocation in rats. Effects of recombinant bactericidal/permeability-increasing protein. Annals of Surgery, 221, 398405.