SEARCH

SEARCH BY CITATION

References

  • Akira, S., Takeda, K. & Kaisho, T. (2001) Toll-like receptors: critical proteins linking innate and acquired immunity. Natural Immunology, 2, 675680.
  • Algarra, I., Ortega, E., Serrano, M.J., Alvarez de Cienfuegos, G. & Gaforio, J.J. (2002) Suppression of splenic macrophage Candida albicans phagocytosis following in vivo depletion of natural killer cells in immunocompetent BALB/c mice and T-cell-deficient nude mice. FEMS Immunology and Medical Microbiology, 33, 159163.
  • Arribas, J.R., Hernandez-Albujar, S., Gonzalez-Garcia, J.J., Pena, J.M., Gonzalez, A., Canedo, T., Madero, R., Vazquez, J.J. & Powderly, W.G. (2000) Impact of protease inhibitor therapy on HIV-related oropharyngeal candidiasis. AIDS, 14, 979985.
  • Bacci, A., Montagnoli, C., Perruccio, K., Bozza, S., Gaziano, R., Pitzurra, L., Velardi, A., D'Ostiani, C.F., Cutler, J.E. & Romani, L. (2002) Dendritic cells pulsed with fungal RNA induce protective immunity to Candida albicans in hematopoietic transplantation. Journal of Immunology, 168, 29042913.
  • Balish, E., Jensen, J., Warner, T., Brekke, J. & Leonard, B. (1993) Mucosal and disseminated candidiasis in gnotobiotic SCID mice. Journal of Medical and Veterinary Mycology, 31, 143154.
  • Banchereau, J. & Steinman, R.M. (1998) Dendritic cells and the control of immunity. Nature, 392, 245252.
  • Bauman, S.K., Nichols, K.L. & Murphy, J.W. (2000) Dendritic cells in the induction of protective and nonprotective anticryptococcal cell-mediated immune responses. Journal of Immunology, 165, 158167.
  • Bektic, J., Lell, C.P., Fuchs, A., Stoiber, H., Speth, C., Lass-Florl, C., Borg-von Zepelin, M., Dierich, M.P. & Wurzner, R. (2001) HIV protease inhibitors attenuate adherence of Candida albicans to epithelial cells in vitro. FEMS Immunology and Medical Microbiology, 31, 6571.
  • Bellocchio, S., Montagnoli, C., Bozza, S., Gaziano, R., Rossi, G., Mambula, S.S., Vecchi, A., Mantovani, A., Levitz, S.M. & Romani, L. (2004) The contribution of the Toll-like/IL-1 receptor superfamily to innate and adaptive immunity to fungal pathogens in vivo. Journal of Immunology, 172, 30593069.
  • Beno, D.W., Stover, A.G. & Mathews, H.L. (1995) Growth inhibition of Candida albicans hyphae by CD8+ lymphocytes. Journal of Immunology, 154, 52735281.
  • Berenguer, J., Allende, M.C., Lee, J.W., Garrett, K., Lyman, C., Ali, N.M., Bacher, J., Pizzo, P.A. & Walsh, T.J. (1995) Pathogenesis of pulmonary aspergillosis. Granulocytopenia versus cyclosporine and methylprednisolone-induced immunosuppression. American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, 152, 10791086.
  • Blanco, M.T., Hurtado, C., Perez-Giraldo, C., Moran, F.J., Gonzalez-Velasco, C. & Gomez-Garcia, A.C. (2003) Effect of ritonavir and saquinavir on Candida albicans growth rate and in vitro activity of aspartyl proteinases. Medical Mycology, 41, 167170.
  • Boelaert, J.R., de Locht, M., Van Cutsem, J., Kerrels, V., Cantinieaux, B., Verdonck, A., Van Landuyt, H.W. & Schneider, Y.J. (1993) Mucormycosis during deferoxamine therapy is a siderophore-mediated infection. In vitro and in vivo animal studies. Journal of Clinical Investigation, 91, 19791986.
  • Bozza, S., Gaziano, R., Spreca, A., Bacci, A., Montagnoli, C., di Francesco, P. & Romani, L. (2002) Dendritic cells transport conidia and hyphae of Aspergillus fumigatus from the airways to the draining lymph nodes and initiate disparate Th responses to the fungus. Journal of Immunology, 168, 13621371.
  • Bozza, S., Perruccio, K., Montagnoli, C., Gaziano, R., Bellocchio, S., Burchielli, E., Nkwanyuo, G., Pitzurra, L., Velardi, A. & Romani, L. (2003) A dendritic cell vaccine against invasive aspergillosis in allogeneic hematopoietic transplantation. Blood, 102, 38073814.
  • Braedel, S., Radsak, M., Einsele, H., Latge, J.P., Michan, A., Loeffler, J., Haddad, Z., Grigoleit, U., Schild, H. & Hebart, H. (2004) Aspergillus fumigatus antigens activate innate immune cells via toll-like receptors 2 and 4. British Journal of Haematology, 125, 392399.
  • Brummer, E., Kamberi, M. & Stevens, D.A. (2003) Regulation by granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor and/or steroids given in vivo of proinflammatory cytokine and chemokine production by bronchoalveolar macrophages in response to Aspergillus conidia. Journal of Infectious Diseases, 187, 705709.
  • Burnie, J. & Matthews, R. (2004) Genetically recombinant antibodies: new therapeutics against candidiasis. Expert Opinion of Biological Theraphy, 4, 233241.
  • Casadevall, A. & Perfect, J.R. (1998) Cryptococcus Neoformans. ASM Press, Washington, DC.
  • Casadevall, A., Cleare, W., Feldmesser, M., Glatman-Freedman, A., Goldman, D.L., Kozel, T.R., Lendvai, N., Mukherjee, J., Pirofski, L.A., Rivera, J., Rosas, A.L., Scharff, M.D., Valadon, P., Westin, K. & Zhong, Z. (1998) Characterization of a murine monoclonal antibody to Cryptococcus neoformans polysaccharide that is a candidate for human therapeutic studies. Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy, 42, 14371446.
  • Cenci, E., Perito, S., Enssle, K.H., Mosci, P., Latge, J.P., Romani, L. & Bistoni, F. (1997) Th1 and Th2 cytokines in mice with invasive aspergillosis. Infection and Immunity, 65, 564570.
  • Cenci, E., Mencacci, A., Fe d'Ostiani, C., Del Sero, G., Mosci, P., Montagnoli, C., Bacci, A. & Romani, L. (1998) Cytokine- and T helper-dependent lung mucosal immunity in mice with invasive pulmonary aspergillosis. Journal of Infectious Diseases, 178, 17501760.
  • Cenci, E., Mencacci, A., Del Sero, G., Bacci, A., Montagnoli, C., D'Ostiani, C.F., Mosci, P., Bachmann, M., Bistoni, F., Kopf, M. & Romani, L. (1999) Interleukin-4 causes susceptibility to invasive pulmonary aspergillosis through suppression of protective type I responses. Journal of Infectious Diseases, 180, 19571968.
  • Cenci, E., Mencacci, A., Casagrande, A., Mosci, P., Bistoni, F. & Romani, L. (2001) Impaired antifungal effector activity but not inflammatory cell recruitment in interleukin-6-deficient mice with invasive pulmonary aspergillosis. Journal of Infectious Diseases, 184, 610617.
  • Cohen, M.S., Isturiz, R.E., Malech, H.L., Root, R.K., Wilfert, C.M., Gutman, L. & Buckley, R.H. (1981) Fungal infection in chronic granulomatous disease. The importance of the phagocyte in defense against fungi. American Journal of Medicine, 71, 5966.
  • Cole, G.T., Halawa, A.A. & Anaissie, E.J. (1996) The role of the gastrointestinal tract in hematogenous candidiasis: from the laboratory to the bedside. Clinical Infectious Diseases, 22(Suppl. 2), S73S88.
  • Del Sero, G., Mencacci, A., Cenci, E., D'Ostiani, C.F., Montagnoli, C., Bacci, A., Mosci, P., Kopf, M. & Romani, L. (1999) Antifungal type 1 responses are upregulated in IL-10-deficient mice. Microbes Infections, 1, 11691180.
  • Diamond, R.D. & Clark, R.A. (1982) Damage to Aspergillus fumigatus and Rhizopus oryzae hyphae by oxidative and nonoxidative microbicidal products of human neutrophils in vitro. Infection and Immunity, 38, 487495.
  • Diamond, R.D., Krzesicki, R., Epstein, B. & Jao, W. (1978) Damage to hyphal forms of fungi by human leukocytes in vitro. A possible host defense mechanism in aspergillosis and mucormycosis. American Journal of Pathology, 91, 313328.
  • Diamond, R.D., Clark, R.A. & Haudenschild, C.C. (1980) Damage to Candida albicans hyphae and pseudohyphae by the myeloperoxidase system and oxidative products of neutrophil metabolism in vitro. Journal of Clinical Investigation, 66, 908917.
  • Dignani, M.C. & Anaissie, E. (2004) Human fusariosis. Clinical Microbiology and Infectious, 10(Suppl. 1), 6775.
  • Dodd, C.L., Greenspan, D., Katz, M.H., Westenhouse, J.L., Feigal, D.W. & Greenspan, J.S. (1991) Oral candidiasis in HIV infection: pseudomembranous and erythematous candidiasis show similar rates of progression to AIDS. AIDS, 5, 13391343.
  • Dong, Z.M. & Murphy, J.W. (1997) Cryptococcal polysaccharides bind to CD18 on human neutrophils. Infection and Immunity, 65, 557563.
  • D'Ostiani, C.F., Del Sero, G., Bacci, A., Montagnoli, C., Spreca, A., Mencacci, A., Ricciardi-Castagnoli, P. & Romani, L. (2000) Dendritic cells discriminate between yeasts and hyphae of the fungus Candida albicans. Implications for initiation of T helper cell immunity in vitro and in vivo. Journal of Experimental Medicine, 191, 16611674.
  • Duncan, R.A., von Reyn, C.F., Alliegro, G.M., Toossi, Z., Sugar, A.M. & Levitz, S.M. (1993) Idiopathic CD4+ T-lymphocytopenia – four patients with opportunistic infections and no evidence of HIV infection. New England Journal of Medicine, 328, 393398.
  • von Eiff, M., Roos, N., Schulten, R., Hesse, M., Zuhlsdorf, M. & van de Loo, J. (1995) Pulmonary aspergillosis: early diagnosis improves survival. Respiration, 62, 341347.
  • Ellerbroek, P.M., Ulfman, L.H., Hoepelman, A.I. & Coenjaerts, F.E. (2004) Cryptococcal glucuronoxylomannan interferes with neutrophil rolling on the endothelium. Cell Microbiology, 6, 581592.
  • Farah, C.S., Elahi, S., Pang, G., Gotjamanos, T., Seymour, G.J., Clancy, R.L. & Ashman, R.B. (2001) T cells augment monocyte and neutrophil function in host resistance against oropharyngeal candidiasis. Infection and Immunity, 69, 61106118.
  • Farah, C.S., Elahi, S., Drysdale, K., Pang, G., Gotjamanos, T., Seymour, G.J., Clancy, R.L. & Ashman, R.B. (2002) Primary role for CD4(+) T lymphocytes in recovery from oropharyngeal candidiasis. Infection and Immunity, 70, 724731.
  • Flesch, I.E., Schwamberger, G. & Kaufmann, S.H. (1989) Fungicidal activity of IFN-gamma-activated macrophages. Extracellular killing of Cryptococcus neoformans. Journal of Immunology, 142, 32193224.
  • Gao, J.L., Wynn, T.A., Chang, Y., Lee, E.J., Broxmeyer, H.E., Cooper, S., Tiffany, H.L., Westphal, H., Kwon-Chung, J. & Murphy, P.M. (1997) Impaired host defense, hematopoiesis, granulomatous inflammation and type 1-type 2 cytokine balance in mice lacking CC chemokine receptor 1. Journal of Experimental Medicine, 185, 19591968.
  • Garlanda, C., Hirsch, E., Bozza, S., Salustri, A., De Acetis, M., Nota, R., Maccagno, A., Riva, F., Bottazzi, B., Peri, G., Doni, A., Vago, L., Botto, M., De Santis, R., Carminati, P., Siracusa, G., Altruda, F., Vecchi, A., Romani, L. & Mantovani, A. (2002) Non-redundant role of the long pentraxin PTX3 in anti-fungal innate immune response. Nature, 420, 182186.
  • Gaviria, J.M., van Burik, J.A., Dale, D.C., Root, R.K. & Liles, W.C. (1999) Comparison of interferon-gamma, granulocyte colony-stimulating factor, and granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor for priming leukocyte-mediated hyphal damage of opportunistic fungal pathogens. Journal of Infectious Diseases, 179, 10381041.
  • Gerson, S.L., Talbot, G.H., Hurwitz, S., Strom, B.L., Lusk, E.J. & Cassileth, P.A. (1984) Prolonged granulocytopenia: the major risk factor for invasive pulmonary aspergillosis in patients with acute leukemia. Annals of Internal Medicine, 100, 345351.
  • Graybill, J.R. & Mitchell, L. (1979) Host defense in Cryptococcosis. III. In vivo alteration of immunity. Mycopathologia, 69, 171178.
  • Graybill, J.R., Mitchell, L. & Drutz, D.J. (1979) Host defense in cryptococcosis. III. Protection of nude mice by thymus transplantation. Journal of Infectious Diseases, 140, 546552.
  • Guggenheimer, J., Moore, P.A., Rossie, K., Myers, D., Mongelluzzo, M.B., Block, H.M., Weyant, R. & Orchard, T. (2000) Insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus and oral soft tissue pathologies: II. Prevalence and characteristics of Candida and Candidal lesions. Oral Surgery, Oral Medicine, Oral Pathology, Oral Radiology and Endodontics, 89, 570576.
  • Gyetko, M.R., Sud, S., Chen, G.H., Fuller, J.A., Chensue, S.W. & Toews, G.B. (2002) Urokinase-type plasminogen activator is required for the generation of a type 1 immune response to pulmonary Cryptococcus neoformans infection. Journal of Immunology, 168, 801809.
  • Han, Y., Kozel, T.R., Zhang, M.X., MacGill, R.S., Carroll, M.C. & Cutler, J.E. (2001) Complement is essential for protection by an IgM and an IgG3 monoclonal antibody against experimental, hematogenously disseminated candidiasis. Journal of Immunology, 167, 15501557.
  • Hoag, K.A., Lipscomb, M.F., Izzo, A.A. & Street, N.E. (1997) IL-12 and IFN-gamma are required for initiating the protective Th1 response to pulmonary cryptococcosis in resistant C.B-17 mice. American Journal of Respiratory Cell and Molecular Biology, 17, 733739.
  • Horner, W.E., Helbling, A., Salvaggio, J.E. & Lehrer, S.B. (1995) Fungal allergens. Clinical Microbiology Reviews, 8, 161179.
  • Huang, Q., Liu, D., Majewski, P., Schulte, L.C., Korn, J.M., Young, R.A., Lander, E.S. & Hacohen, N. (2001) The plasticity of dendritic cell responses to pathogens and their components. Science, 294, 870875.
  • Huffnagle, G.B., Lipscomb, M.F., Lovchik, J.A., Hoag, K.A. & Street, N.E. (1994) The role of CD4+ and CD8+ T cells in the protective inflammatory response to a pulmonary cryptococcal infection. Journal of Leukocyte Biology, 55, 3542.
  • Husain, S., Alexander, B.D., Munoz, P., Avery, R.K., Houston, S., Pruett, T., Jacobs, R., Dominguez, E.A., Tollemar, J.G., Baumgarten, K., Yu, C.M., Wagener, M.M., Linden, P., Kusne, S. & Singh, N. (2003) Opportunistic mycelial fungal infections in organ transplant recipients: emerging importance of non-Aspergillus mycelial fungi. Clinical Infectious Diseases, 37, 221229.
  • Ibrahim-Granet, O., Philippe, B., Boleti, H., Boisvieux-Ulrich, E., Grenet, D., Stern, M. & Latge, J.P. (2003) Phagocytosis and intracellular fate of Aspergillus fumigatus conidia in alveolar macrophages. Infection and Immunity, 71, 891903.
  • Ieong, M.H., Reardon, C.C., Levitz, S.M. & Kornfeld, H. (2000) Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infection of alveolar macrophages impairs their innate fungicidal activity. American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, 162, 966970.
  • Jacobson, E.S. & Tinnell, S.B. (1993) Antioxidant function of fungal melanin. Journal of Bacteriology, 175, 71027104.
  • Jahn, B., Boukhallouk, F., Lotz, J., Langfelder, K., Wanner, G. & Brakhage, A.A. (2000) Interaction of human phagocytes with pigmentless Aspergillus conidia. Infection and Immunity, 68, 37363739.
  • Jorens, P.G., Boelaert, J.R., Halloy, V., Zamora, R., Schneider, Y.J. & Herman, A.G. (1995) Human and rat macrophages mediate fungistatic activity against Rhizopus species differently: in vitro and ex vivo studies. Infection and Immunity, 63, 44894494.
  • Kan, V.L. & Bennett, J.E. (1988) Lectin-like attachment sites on murine pulmonary alveolar macrophages bind Aspergillus fumigatus conidia. Journal of Infectious Diseases, 158, 407414.
  • Kaplan, M.H., Rosen, P.P. & Armstrong, D. (1977) Cryptococcosis in a cancer hospital: clinical and pathological correlates in forty-six patients. Cancer, 39, 22652274.
  • Kauffman, C.A., Israel, K.S., Smith, J.W., White, A.C., Schwarz, J. & Brooks, G.F. (1978) Histoplasmosis in immunosuppressed patients. American Journal of Medicine, 64, 923932.
  • Kawakami, K., Koguchi, Y., Qureshi, M.H., Yara, S., Kinjo, Y., Uezu, K. & Saito, A. (2000) NK cells eliminate Cryptococcus neoformans by potentiating the fungicidal activity of macrophages rather than by directly killing them upon stimulation with IL-12 and IL-18. Microbiology and Immunology, 44, 10431050.
  • Klein, R.S., Harris, C.A., Small, C.B., Moll, B., Lesser, M. & Friedland, G.H. (1984) Oral candidiasis in high-risk patients as the initial manifestation of the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. New England Journal of Medicine, 311, 354358.
  • Kontoyiannis, D.P., Wessel, V.C., Bodey, G.P. & Rolston, K.V. (2000) Zygomycosis in the 1990s in a tertiary-care cancer center. Clinical Infectious Diseases, 30, 851856.
  • Kozel, T.R., Wilson, M.A., Farrell, T.P. & Levitz, S.M. (1989) Activation of C3 and binding to Aspergillus fumigatus conidia and hyphae. Infection and Immunity, 57, 34123417.
  • Legrand, C., Anaissie, E., Hashem, R., Nelson, P., Bodey, G.P. & Ro, J. (1991) Experimental fusarial hyalohyphomycosis in a murine model. Journal of Infectious Diseases, 164, 944948.
  • Leigh, J.E., Steele, C., Wormley, Jr F.L., Luo, W., Clark, R.A., Gallaher, W. & Fidel, Jr P.L. (1998) Th1/Th2 cytokine expression in saliva of HIV-positive and HIV-negative individuals: a pilot study in HIV-positive individuals with oropharyngeal candidiasis. Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes Human Retrovirology, 19, 373380.
  • Letterio, J.J., Lehrnbecher, T., Pollack, G., Walsh, T.J. & Chanock, S.J. (2001) Invasive candidiasis stimulates hepatocyte and monocyte production of active transforming growth factor beta. Infection and Immunity, 69, 51155120.
  • Levitz, S.M. (2004) Interactions of Toll-like receptors with fungi. Microbes Infectious, 6, 13511355.
  • Levitz, S.M. & Tabuni, A. (1991) Binding of Cryptococcus neoformans by human cultured macrophages. Requirements for multiple complement receptors and actin. Journal of Clinical Investigation, 87, 528535.
  • Levitz, S.M., Selsted, M.E., Ganz, T., Lehrer, R.I. & Diamond, R.D. (1986) In vitro killing of spores and hyphae of Aspergillus fumigatus and Rhizopus oryzae by rabbit neutrophil cationic peptides and bronchoalveolar macrophages. Journal of Infectious Diseases, 154, 483489.
  • Levitz, S.M., Dupont, M.P. & Smail, E.H. (1994) Direct activity of human T lymphocytes and natural killer cells against Cryptococcus neoformans. Infection and Immunity, 62, 194202.
  • Lovchik, J.A., Lyons, C.R. & Lipscomb, M.F. (1995) A role for gamma interferon-induced nitric oxide in pulmonary clearance of Cryptococcus neoformans. American Journal of Respiratory Cell and Molecular Biology, 13, 116124.
  • Luberto, C., Martinez-Marino, B., Taraskiewicz, D., Bolanos, B., Chitano, P., Toffaletti, D.L., Cox, G.M., Perfect, J.R., Hannun, Y.A., Balish, E. & Del Poeta, M. (2003) Identification of App1 as a regulator of phagocytosis and virulence of Cryptococcus neoformans. Journal of Clinical Investigation, 112, 10801094.
  • Lyman, C.A., Garrett, K.F., Pizzo, P.A. & Walsh, T.J. (1994) Response of human polymorphonuclear leukocytes and monocytes to Trichosporon beigelii: host defense against an emerging opportunistic pathogen. Journal of Infectious Diseases, 170, 15571565.
  • Madan, T., Eggleton, P., Kishore, U., Strong, P., Aggrawal, S.S., Sarma, P.U. & Reid, K.B. (1997) Binding of pulmonary surfactant proteins A and D to Aspergillus fumigatus conidia enhances phagocytosis and killing by human neutrophils and alveolar macrophages. Infection and Immunity, 65, 31713179.
  • Mambula, S.S., Simons, E.R., Hastey, R., Selsted, M.E. & Levitz, S.M. (2000) Human neutrophil-mediated nonoxidative antifungal activity against Cryptococcus neoformans. Infection and Immunity, 68, 62576264.
  • Mambula, S.S., Sau, K., Henneke, P., Golenbock, D.T. & Levitz, S.M. (2002) Toll-like receptor (TLR) signaling in response to Aspergillus fumigatus. Journal of Biological Chemistry, 277, 3932039326.
  • Mansour, M.K., Schlesinger, L.S. & Levitz, S.M. (2002) Optimal T cell responses to Cryptococcus neoformans mannoprotein are dependent on recognition of conjugated carbohydrates by mannose receptors. Journal of Immunology, 168, 28722879.
  • Marr, K.A., Koudadoust, M., Black, M. & Balajee, S.A. (2001) Early events in macrophage killing of Aspergillus fumigatus conidia: new flow cytometric viability assay. Clinical and Diagnostic Laboratory Immunology, 8, 12401247.
  • Marr, K.A., Carter, R.A., Crippa, F., Wald, A. & Corey, L. (2002) Epidemiology and outcome of mould infections in hematopoietic stem cell transplant recipients. Clinical Infectious Diseases, 34, 909917.
  • Martinez, L.R., Moussai, D. & Casadevall, A. (2004) Antibody to Cryptococcus neoformans glucuronoxylomannan inhibits the release of capsular antigen. Infection and Immunity, 72, 36743679.
  • Marx, R.S., Forsyth, K.R. & Hentz, S.K. (1982) Mucorales species activation of a serum leukotactic factor. Infection and Immunity, 38, 12171222.
  • Mehrad, B., Strieter, R.M. & Standiford, T.J. (1999) Role of TNF-alpha in pulmonary host defense in murine invasive aspergillosis. Journal of Immunology, 162, 16331640.
  • Meier, A., Kirschning, C.J., Nikolaus, T., Wagner, H., Heesemann, J. & Ebel, F. (2003) Toll-like receptor (TLR) 2 and TLR4 are essential for Aspergillus-induced activation of murine macrophages. Cell Microbiology, 5, 561570.
  • Miller, M.F., Mitchell, T.G., Storkus, W.J. & Dawson, J.R. (1990) Human natural killer cells do not inhibit growth of Cryptococcus neoformans in the absence of antibody. Infection and Immunity, 58, 639645.
  • Mirza, S.A., Phelan, M., Rimland, D., Graviss, E., Hamill, R., Brandt, M.E., Gardner, T., Sattah, M., de Leon, G.P., Baughman, W. & Hajjeh, R.A. (2003) The changing epidemiology of cryptococcosis: an update from population-based active surveillance in 2 large metropolitan areas, 1992–2000. Clinical Infectious Diseases, 36, 789794.
  • Montagnoli, C., Bacci, A., Bozza, S., Gaziano, R., Mosci, P., Sharpe, A.H. & Romani, L. (2002) B7/CD28-dependent CD4+ CD25+ regulatory T cells are essential components of the memory-protective immunity to Candida albicans. Journal of Immunology, 169, 62986308.
  • de Moraes-Vasconcelos, D., Orii, N.M., Romano, C.C., Iqueoka, R.Y. & Duarte, A.J. (2001) Characterization of the cellular immune function of patients with chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis. Clinical and Experimental Immunology, 123, 247253.
  • Mullbacher, A. & Eichner, R.D. (1984) Immunosuppression in vitro by a metabolite of a human pathogenic fungus. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 81, 38353837.
  • Murphy, J.W., Hidore, M.R. & Wong, S.C. (1993) Direct interactions of human lymphocytes with the yeast-like organism, Cryptococcus neoformans. Journal of Clinical Investigation, 91, 15531566.
  • Murphy, J.W., Zhou, A. & Wong, S.C. (1997) Direct interactions of human natural killer cells with Cryptococcus neoformans inhibit granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor and tumor necrosis factor alpha production. Infection and Immunity, 65, 45644571.
  • Netea, M.G., Warris, A., Van der Meer, J.W., Fenton, M.J., Verver-Janssen, T.J., Jacobs, L.E., Andresen, T., Verweij, P.E. & Kullberg, B.J. (2003) Aspergillus fumigatus evades immune recognition during germination through loss of toll-like receptor-4-mediated signal transduction. Journal of Infectious Diseases, 188, 320326.
  • Pahl, H.L., Krauss, B., Schulze-Osthoff, K., Decker, T., Traenckner, E.B., Vogt, M., Myers, C., Parks, T., Warring, P., Muhlbacher, A., Czernilofsky, A.P. & Baeuerle, P.A. (1996) The immunosuppressive fungal metabolite gliotoxin specifically inhibits transcription factor NF-kappaB. Journal of Experimental Medicine, 183, 18291840.
  • Pappas, P.G., Rex, J.H., Sobel, J.D., Filler, S.G., Dismukes, W.E., Walsh, T.J. & Edwards, J.E. (2004) Guidelines for treatment of candidiasis. Clinical Infectious Diseases, 38, 161189.
  • Philippe, B., Ibrahim-Granet, O., Prevost, M.C., Gougerot-Pocidalo, M.A., Sanchez Perez, M., Van der Meeren, A. & Latge, J.P. (2003) Killing of Aspergillus fumigatus by alveolar macrophages is mediated by reactive oxidant intermediates. Infection and Immunity, 71, 30343042.
  • Retini, C., Vecchiarelli, A., Monari, C., Tascini, C., Bistoni, F. & Kozel, T.R. (1996) Capsular polysaccharide of Cryptococcus neoformans induces proinflammatory cytokine release by human neutrophils. Infection and Immunity, 64, 28972903.
  • Rhodes, J.C. (1985) Contribution of complement component C5 to the pathogenesis of experimental murine cryptococcosis. Sabouraudia, 23, 225234.
  • Roblot, F., Le Moal, G., Godet, C., Hutin, P., Texereau, M., Boyer, E., Prazuck, T., Lacroix, C., Souala, M.F., Raffi, F., Weinbreck, P., Besnier, J.M., Garo, B., de Gentile, L. & Becq-Giraudon, B. (2003) Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia in patients with hematologic malignancies: a descriptive study. Journal of Infection, 47, 1927.
  • Roden, M., Buchanan, W., Knudsen, T., Sarkisova, R., Schaufele, R., Sein, M., Sein, T., Kontoyiannis, D. & Walsh, T. (2004) Epidemiology and outcome of zygomycosis: a review of 631 cases. In: 44th Interscience Conference on Antimicrobials Agents and Chemotherapy, 411pp. American Society of Microbiology, Washington, DC.
  • Roilides, E. & Walsh, T. (2004) Recombinant cytokines in augmentation and immunomodulation of host defenses against Candida spp. Medical Mycology, 42, 113.
  • Roilides, E., Uhlig, K., Venzon, D., Pizzo, P.A. & Walsh, T.J. (1993) Prevention of corticosteroid-induced suppression of human polymorphonuclear leukocyte-induced damage of Aspergillus fumigatus hyphae by granulocyte colony-stimulating factor and gamma interferon. Infection and Immunity, 61, 48704877.
  • Roilides, E., Robinson, T., Sein, T., Pizzo, P.A. & Walsh, T.J. (1994) In vitro and ex vivo effects of cyclosporin A on phagocytic host defenses against Aspergillus fumigatus. Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy, 38, 28832888.
  • Roilides, E., Dimitriadou, A., Kadiltsoglou, I., Sein, T., Karpouzas, J., Pizzo, P.A. & Walsh, T.J. (1997) IL-10 exerts suppressive and enhancing effects on antifungal activity of mononuclear phagocytes against Aspergillus fumigatus. Journal of Immunology, 158, 322329.
  • Roilides, E., Dimitriadou-Georgiadou, A., Sein, T., Kadiltsoglou, I. & Walsh, T.J. (1998a) Tumor necrosis factor alpha enhances antifungal activities of polymorphonuclear and mononuclear phagocytes against Aspergillus fumigatus. Infection and Immunity, 66, 59996003.
  • Roilides, E., Sein, T., Schaufele, R., Chanock, S.J. & Walsh, T.J. (1998b) Increased serum concentrations of interleukin-10 in patients with hepatosplenic candidiasis. Journal of Infectious Diseases, 178, 589592.
  • Roilides, E., Tsaparidou, S., Kadiltsoglou, I., Sein, T. & Walsh, T.J. (1999) Interleukin-12 enhances antifungal activity of human mononuclear phagocytes against Aspergillus fumigatus: implications for a gamma interferon-independent pathway. Infection and Immunity, 67, 30473050.
  • Romani, L. (2002) Immunology of invasive candidiasis. In: Candida and Candidiasis (ed. by R.A.Calderone), pp. 223241. ASM Press, Washington, DC.
  • Romani, L. (2004) Immunity to fungal infections. Natural Review of Immunology, 4, 123.
  • Romani, L., Mencacci, A., Tonnetti, L., Spaccapelo, R., Cenci, E., Puccetti, P., Wolf, S.F. & Bistoni, F. (1994) IL-12 is both required and prognostic in vivo for T helper type 1 differentiation in murine candidiasis. Journal of Immunology, 153, 51675175.
  • Sangeorzan, J.A., Bradley, S.F., He, X., Zarins, L.T., Ridenour, G.L., Tiballi, R.N. & Kauffman, C.A. (1994) Epidemiology of oral candidiasis in HIV-infected patients: colonization, infection, treatment, and emergence of fluconazole resistance. American Journal of Medicine, 97, 339346.
  • Schaffner, A., Douglas, H. & Braude, A. (1982) Selective protection against conidia by mononuclear and against mycelia by polymorphonuclear phagocytes in resistance to Aspergillus. Observations on these two lines of defense in vivo and in vitro with human and mouse phagocytes. Journal of Clinical Investigation, 69, 617631.
  • Schaffner, A., Douglas, H., Braude, A.I. & Davis, C.E. (1983) Killing of Aspergillus spores depends on the anatomical source of the macrophage. Infection and Immunity, 42, 11091115.
  • Shoham, S., Huang, C., Chen, J.M., Golenbock, D.T. & Levitz, S.M. (2001) Toll-like receptor 4 mediates intracellular signaling without TNF-alpha release in response to Cryptococcus neoformans polysaccharide capsule. Journal of Immunology, 166, 46204626.
  • Steele, C., Leigh, J., Swoboda, R. & Fidel, Jr P.L. (2000) Growth inhibition of Candida by human oral epithelial cells. Journal of Infectious Diseases, 182, 14791485.
  • Stevens, D.A., Kan, V.L., Judson, M.A., Morrison, V.A., Dummer, S., Denning, D.W., Bennett, J.E., Walsh, T.J., Patterson, T.F. & Pankey, G.A. (2000) Practice guidelines for diseases caused by Aspergillus. Infectious Diseases Society of America. Clinical Infectious Diseases, 30, 696709.
  • Syme, R.M., Spurrell, J.C., Amankwah, E.K., Green, F.H. & Mody, C.H. (2002) Primary dendritic cells phagocytose Cryptococcus neoformans via mannose receptors and Fcgamma receptor II for presentation to T lymphocytes. Infection and Immunity, 70, 59725981.
  • Taborda, C.P., Rivera, J., Zaragoza, O. & Casadevall, A. (2003) More is not necessarily better: prozone-like effects in passive immunization with IgG. Journal of Immunology, 170, 36213630.
  • Tang, Y.Q., Yeaman, M.R. & Selsted, M.E. (2002) Antimicrobial peptides from human platelets. Infection and Immunity, 70, 65246533.
  • Tsunawaki, S., Yoshida, L.S., Nishida, S., Kobayashi, T. & Shimoyama, T. (2004) Fungal metabolite gliotoxin inhibits assembly of the human respiratory burst NADPH oxidase. Infection and Immunity, 72, 33733382.
  • Uffredi, M.L., Mangiapan, G., Cadranel, J. & Kac, G. (2003) Significance of Aspergillus fumigatus isolation from respiratory specimens of nongranulocytopenic patients. European Journal of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases, 22, 457462.
  • Vecchiarelli, A. & Casadevall, A. (1998) Antibody-mediated effects against Cryptococcus neoformans: evidence for interdependency and collaboration between humoral and cellular immunity. Research in Immunology, 149, 321333; discussion 500–323.
  • Vecchiarelli, A., Dottorini, M., Pietrella, D., Monari, C., Retini, C., Todisco, T. & Bistoni, F. (1994) Role of human alveolar macrophages as antigen-presenting cells in Cryptococcus neoformans infection. American Journal of Respiratory Cell and Molecular Biology, 11, 130137.
  • Waldorf, A.R. & Diamond, R.D. (1985) Neutrophil chemotactic responses induced by fresh and swollen Rhizopus oryzae spores and Aspergillus fumigatus conidia. Infection and Immunity, 48, 458463.
  • Waldorf, A.R., Levitz, S.M. & Diamond, R.D. (1984a) In vivo bronchoalveolar macrophage defense against Rhizopus oryzae and Aspergillus fumigatus. Journal of Infectious Diseases, 150, 752760.
  • Waldorf, A.R., Ruderman, N. & Diamond, R.D. (1984b) Specific susceptibility to mucormycosis in murine diabetes and bronchoalveolar macrophage defense against Rhizopus. Journal of Clinical Investigation, 74, 150160.
  • Wang, Y., Aisen, P. & Casadevall, A. (1995) Cryptococcus neoformans melanin and virulence: mechanism of action. Infection and Immunity, 63, 31313136.
  • Warris, A., Bjorneklett, A. & Gaustad, P. (2001) Invasive pulmonary aspergillosis associated with infliximab therapy. New England Journal of Medicine, 344, 10991100.
  • Washburn, R.G., Hammer, C.H. & Bennett, J.E. (1986) Inhibition of complement by culture supernatants of Aspergillus fumigatus. Journal of Infectious Diseases, 154, 944951.
  • Washburn, R.G., Gallin, J.I. & Bennett, J.E. (1987) Oxidative killing of Aspergillus fumigatus proceeds by parallel myeloperoxidase-dependent and -independent pathways. Infection and Immunity, 55, 20882092.
  • Wey, S.B., Mori, M., Pfaller, M.A., Woolson, R.F. & Wenzel, R.P. (1988) Hospital-acquired candidemia. The attributable mortality and excess length of stay. Archives of Internal Medicine, 148, 26422645.
  • Wey, S.B., Mori, M., Pfaller, M.A., Woolson, R.F. & Wenzel, R.P. (1989) Risk factors for hospital-acquired candidemia. A matched case-control study. Archives of Internal Medicine, 149, 23492353.
  • White, M., Cirrincione, C., Blevins, A. & Armstrong, D. (1992) Cryptococcal meningitis: outcome in patients with AIDS and patients with neoplastic disease. Journal of Infectious Diseases, 165, 960963.
  • Winn, R.M., Gil-Lamaignere, C., Roilides, E., Simitsopoulou, M., Lyman, C.A., Maloukou, A. & Walsh, T.J. (2003a) Selective effects of interleukin (IL)-15 on antifungal activity and IL-8 release by polymorphonuclear leukocytes in response to hyphae of Aspergillus species. Journal of Infectious Diseases, 188, 585590.
  • Winn, R.M., Gil-Lamaignere, C., Maloukou, A. & Roilides, E. (2003b) Interactions of human phagocytes with moulds Fusarium spp. and Verticillium nigrescens possessing different pathogenicity. Medical Mycology, 41, 503509.
  • Yauch, L.E., Mansour, M.K., Shoham, S., Rottman, J.B. & Levitz, S.M. (2004) Involvement of CD14, toll-like receptors 2 and 4, and MyD88 in the host response to the fungal pathogen Cryptococcus neoformans in vivo. Infection and Immunity, 72, 53735382.
  • Yeaman, M.R., Soldan, S.S., Ghannoum, M.A., Edwards, Jr J.E., Filler, S.G. & Bayer, A.S. (1996) Resistance to platelet microbicidal protein results in increased severity of experimental Candida albicans endocarditis. Infection and Immunity, 64, 13791384.