• Addiego, J., Kasper, C., Abildgaard, C., Hilgartner, M., Lusher, J., Glader, B. & Aledort, L. (1993) Frequency of inhibitor development in haemophiliacs treated with the low-purity factor VIII. Lancet, 342, 462464.
  • Astermark, J., Berntorp, E., White, G.C. & Kroner, B.L. (2001) The Malmo International Brother Study (MIBS): further support for genetic predisposition to inhibitor development in hemophilia patients. Haemophilia, 7, 267272.
  • van der Bom, J.G., Mauser-Bunschoten, E.P., Fischer, K. & van den Berg, H.M. (2003) Age at first treatment and immune tolerance to factor VIII in severe hemophilia. Thrombosis and Haemostasis, 89, 475479.
  • Bray, G.L., Gomperts, E.D., Courter, S., Gruppo, R., Gordon, E.M., Manco-Johnson, M., Shapiro, A., Scheibel, E., White, III, G. & Lee, M. (1994) A multicenter study of recombinant factor VIII (Recombinate): safety, efficacy, and inhibitor risk in previously untreated patients with hemophilia A. The Recombinate Study Group. Blood, 83, 24282435.
  • Cox-Gill, J. (1999) The role of genetics in inhibitor formation. Thrombosis and Haemostasis, 82, 500504.
  • European Study Group of Factor VIII Antibody (1979) Development of factor VIII antibody in haemophilic monozygotic twins. Scandinavian Journal of Haematology, 23, 6468.
  • Hanson, L.A. (1998) Breastfeeding provides passive and likely long-lasting active immunity. Annals of Allergy, Asthma, and Immunology, 81, 523533.
  • Hay, C.R., Ollier, W., Pepper, L., Cumming, A., Keeney, S., Goodeve, A.C., Colvin, B.T., Hil Preston, F.E. & Peake, I.R. (1997) HLA class II profile: a weak determinant of factor VIII inhibitor development in severe haemophilia A. UKHCDO Inhibitor Working Party. Thrombosis and Haemostasis, 77, 234237.
  • Kemball-Cook, G., Tuddenham, E.G.D. & Wacey, A.I. (1998) The factor VIII structure and mutation resource site: HAMSTeRS, version 4. Nucleic Acids Research, 26, 216219.
  • Knobe, K.E., Tengborn, L.I., Petrini, P. & Ljung, C.R. (2002) Breastfeeding does not influence the development of inhibitors in haemophilia. Haemophilia, 8, 657659.
  • Larocca, D., Peterson, J.A., Urrea, R., Kuniyoshi, J., Bistrain, A.M. & Ceriani, R.L. (1991) A Mr 46,000 human milk fat globule protein that is highly expressed in human breast tumors contains factor VIII-like domains. Cancer Research, 51, 49944998.
  • Lorenzo, J.I., Lopez, A., Altisent, C. & Aznar, J.A. (2001) Incidence of factor VIII inhibitors in severe haemophilia: the importance of patient age. British Journal of Haematology, 113, 600603.
  • Lusher, J.M., Arkin, S., Abildgaard, C.F. & Schwartz, R.S. (1993) Recombinant factor VIII for the treatment of previously untreated patients with hemophilia A. Safety, efficacy, and development of inhibitors. Kogenate Previously Untreated Patient Study Group. New England Journal of Medicine, 328, 453459.
  • National Hemophilia Foundation (2001) MASAC recommendation concerning prophylaxis (prophylactic administration of clotting factor concentrate to prevent bleeding), no. 117, available at:
  • Oldenburg, J., Picard, J. & Schwaab, R. (1997) HLA genotype of patients with severe haemophilia A due to intron 22 inversion with and without inhibitors to factor VIII. Thrombosis and Haemostasis, 77, 238242.
  • Oldenburg, J., Schröder, J., Brackmann, H.H., Müller-Reible, C., Schwaab, R. & Tuddenham, E. (2004) Environmental and genetic factors influencing inhibitor development. Seminars in Hematology, 41(Suppl. 1), 8288.
  • Rivard, G.E., Demers, C., Poon, M.C., Wagner, M., Lillicrap, D., Lepine, M., Amesse, C. & St-Louis, J. (2004) Can rFVIIa be used to postpone the use of FVIII in hemophiliac infants? Haemophilia, 10(Suppl. 3), 5 (abstract).
  • Santagostino, E. & Mannucci, P.M. (2000) Guidelines on replacement therapy for haemophilia and inherited coagulation disorders in Italy. Haemophilia, 6, 110.
  • Schwaab, R., Brackmann, H.H., Meyer, C., Seehafer, J., Kirchgesser, M., Haack, A., Olek Tuddenham, E.G. & Oldenburg, J. (1995) Haemophilia A: mutation type determines risk of inhibitor formation. Thrombosis and Haemostasis, 74, 14021406.
  • Sharathkumar, A., Lillicrap, D., Blanchette, V.S., Kern, M., Leggo, J., Stain, A.M. & Brooke Carcao, M.D. (2003) Intensive exposure to factor VIII is a risk factor for inhibitor development in mild hemophilia A. Journal of Thrombosis and Haemostasis, 1, 12281236.
  • Valentino, L.A., Ewenstein, B., Navickis, R.J. & Wilkes, M.M. (2004) Central venous access devices in haemophilia. Haemophilia, 10, 134146.
  • Verbruggen, B., Novakova, I., Wessels, H., Boezeman, J., van den Berg, M. & Mauser-Bunschoten, E. (1995) The Nijmegen modification of the Bethesda assay for factor VIII:C inhibitors: improved specificity and reliability. Thrombosis and Haemostasis, 73, 247251.
  • Yee, T.T. & Lee, C.A. (2000) Oral immune tolerance induction to factor VIII via breast milk, a possibility? Haemophilia, 6, 591.