SEARCH

SEARCH BY CITATION

References

  • Acharya, S.S. & DiMichele, D.M. (2006) Management of factor VIII inhibitors. Best Practice & Research. Clinical Haematology, 19, 5166.
  • Allacher, P., Hausl, C., Ahmad, R.U., Schwarz, H.P., Turecek, P.L. & Reipert, B.M. (2005) Toll-like receptor triggering modulates factor VIII-specific immune memory in murine hemophilia A with factor VIII inhibitors. Blood, 106, 214A.
  • Ananyeva, N.M., Lacroix-Desmazes, S., Hauser, C.A.E., Shima, M., Ovanesov, M.V., Khrenov, A.V. & Saenko, E.L. (2004) Inhibitors in hemophilia A: mechanisms of inhibition, management and perspectives. Blood Coagulation Fibrinolysis, 15, 109124.
  • Anderson, K.C., Bates, M.P., Slaughenhoupt, B.L., Pinkus, G.S., Schlossman, S.F. & Nadler, L.M. (1984) Expression of human B cell-associated antigens on leukemias and lymphomas: a model of human B cell differentiation. Blood, 63, 14241433.
  • Anderton, S.M. & Wraith, D.C. (2002) Selection and fine-tuning of the autoimmune T-cell repertoire. Nature Reviews. Immunology, 2, 487498.
  • Apostolou, I. & Von Boehmer, H. (2004) In vivo instruction of suppressor commitment in naive T cells. Journal of Experimental Medicine, 199, 14011408.
  • Astermark, J., Voorberg, J., Lenk, H., DiMichele, D., Shapiro, A., Tjonnfjord, G. & Berntorp, E. (2003) Impact of inhibitor epitope profile on the neutralizing effect against plasma-derived and recombinant factor VIII concentrates in vitro. Haemophilia, 9, 567572.
  • Astermark, J., Oldenburg, J., Pavlova, A., Berntorp, E. & Lefvert, A.K. (2005) Polymorphisms in the IL-10 but not in the IL-1{beta} and IL-4 genes are associated with inhibitor development in patients with hemophilia A. Blood, 107, 31673172.
  • Astermark, J., Oldenburg, J., Berntorp, E. & Lefvert, A.K. (2006) A bi-allelic polymorphism in the promoter region of the TNF-alpha gene influence the risk of inhibitor development in patients with hemophilia A. Haemophilia, 12(Suppl. 2), 14FP360.
  • Auerswald, G., Spranger, T. & Brackmann, H.H. (2003) The role of plasma-derived factor VIII/von Willebrand factor concentrates in the treatment of hemophilia A patients. Haematologica, 88, EREP05.
  • Banchereau, J. & Steinman, R.M. (1998) Dendritic cells and the control of immunity. Nature, 392, 245252.
  • Bar-Or, A., Oliveira, E.M., Anderson, D.E., Krieger, J.I., Duddy, M., O'Connor, K.C. & Hafler, D.A. (2001) Immunological memory: contribution of memory B cells expressing costimulatory molecules in the resting state. Journal of Immunology, 167, 56695677.
  • Berntorp, E. (2001) Immune tolerance induction: recombinant vs. human-derived product. Haemophilia, 7, 109113.
  • Berntorp, E., Ekman, M., Gunnarsson, M. & Nilsson, I.M. (1996) Variation in factor VIII inhibitor reactivity with different commercial factor VIII preparations. Haemophilia, 2, 9599.
  • Berntorp, E., Astermark, J. & Carlborg, E. (2000) Immune tolerance induction and the treatment of hemophilia. Malmo protocol update. Haematologica, 85, 4850.
  • Bi, L., Lawler, A.M., Antonarakis, S.E., High, K.A., Gearhart, J.D. & Kazazian, H.H. Jr (1995) Targeted disruption of the mouse factor VIII gene produces a model of haemophilia A. Nature Genetics, 10, 119121.
  • Bi, L., Sarkar, R., Naas, T., Lawler, A.M., Pain, J., Shumaker, S.L., Bedian, V. & Kazazian, H.H. Jr, (1996) Further characterization of factor VIII-deficient mice created by gene targeting: RNA and protein studies. Blood, 88, 34463450.
  • Binder, M., Otto, F., Mertelsmann, R., Veelken, H. & Trepel, M. (2006) The epitope recognized by rituximab. Blood, 108, 19751978.
  • Bloom, A.L. (1991) Progress in the clinical management of haemophilia. Thrombosis and Haemostasis, 66, 166177.
  • Von Boehmer, H. (2005) Peptide-based instruction of suppressor commitment in naive T cells and dynamics of immunosuppression in vivo. Scandinavian Journal of Immunology, 62(Suppl. 1), 4954.
  • Brackmann, H.H. & Gormsen, J. (1977) Massive factor-VIII infusion in haemophiliac with factor-VIII inhibitor, high responder. Lancet, 2, 933.
  • Brackmann, H.H., Oldenburg, J. & Schwaab, R. (1996) Immune tolerance for the treatment of factor VIII inhibitors – twenty years’‘bonn protocol’. Vox Sanguinis, 70(Suppl. 1), 3035.
  • Bretscher, P. & Cohn, M. (1970) A theory of self-nonself discrimination. Science, 169, 10421049.
  • Bril, W.S., MacLean, P.E., Kaijen, P.H., Van Den Brink, E.N., Lardy, N.M., Fijnvandraat, K., Peters, M. & Voorberg, J. (2004) HLA class II genotype and factor VIII inhibitors in mild haemophilia A patients with an Arg593 to Cys mutation. Haemophilia, 10, 509514.
  • Burnet, F.M. (1976) A modification of Jerne's theory of antibody production using the concept of clonal selection. CA: A Cancer Journal for Clinicians, 26, 119121.
  • Carcao, M., St Louis, J., Poon, M.C., Grunebaum, E., Lacroix, S., Stain, A.M., Blanchette, V.S. & Rivard, G.E. (2006) Rituximab for congenital haemophiliacs with inhibitors: a Canadian experience. Haemophilia, 12, 718.
  • Catron, D.M., Rusch, L.K., Hataye, J., Itano, A.A. & Jenkins, M.K. (2006) CD4+ T cells that enter the draining lymph nodes after antigen injection participate in the primary response and become central-memory cells. Journal of Experimental Medicine, 203, 10451054.
  • Chen, T.C., Cobbold, S.P., Fairchild, P.J. & Waldmann, H. (2004) Generation of anergic and regulatory T cells following prolonged exposure to a harmless antigen. Journal of Immunology, 172, 59005907.
  • Chen, W., Bluestone, J.A. & Herold, K.C. (2005) Achieving antigen-specific tolerance in diabetes: regulating specifically. International Reviews of Immunology, 24, 287305.
  • Chiller, J.M., Habicht, G.S. & Weigle, W.O. (1970) Cellular sites of immunologic unresponsiveness. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 65, 551556.
  • Cobbold, S.P. (2005) T cell tolerance induced by therapeutic antibodies. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B: Biological Sciences, 360, 16951705.
  • Connelly, S., Andrews, J.L., Gallo, A.M., Kayda, D.B., Qian, J., Hoyer, L., Kadan, M.J., Gorziglia, M.I., Trapnell, B.C., McClelland, A. & Kaleko, M. (1998) Sustained phenotypic correction of murine hemophilia A by in vivo gene therapy. Blood, 91, 32733281.
  • Coscia, M. & Kwak, L.W. (2004) Therapeutic idiotype vaccines in B lymphoproliferative diseases. Expert Opinion on Biological Therapy, 4, 959963.
  • Dazzi, F., Tison, T., Vianello, F., Radossi, P., Zerbinati, P., Carraro, P., Poletti, A. & Girolami, A. (1996) High incidence of anti-FVIII antibodies against non-coagulant epitopes in haemophilia A patients: a possible role for the half-life of transfused FVIII. British Journal of Haematology, 93, 688693.
  • Von Depka, M. (2005) Managing acute bleeds in the patient with haemophilia and inhibitors: options, efficacy and safety. Haemophilia, 11(Suppl. 1), 1823.
  • DiMichele, D.M. & Hay, C.R. (2006) The international immune tolerance study: a multicenter prospective randomized trial in progress. Journal of Thrombosis and Haemostasis, 2, 605611.
  • DiMichele, D. & Kroner, B. (2000) The maintenance of tolerance after successful immune tolerance induction in hemophilia A and B: the North American Registry. Factor VIII/IX Subcommittee of the International Society for Thrombosis and Hemostasis. Haematologica, 85, 4042.
  • DiMichele, D.M. & Kroner, B.L. (2002) The North American Immune Tolerance Registry: practices, outcomes, outcome predictors. Thrombosis and Haemostasis, 87, 5257.
  • Dixon, F.J. & Mauer, P.H. (1955) Immunologic unresponsiveness induced by protein antigens. Journal of Experimental Medicine, 101, 245257.
  • Dresser, D.W. (1962) Specific inhibition of antibody production. II. Paralysis induced in adult mice by small quantities of protein antigen. Immunology, 5, 378388.
  • Ehrenforth, S., Kreuz, W., Scharrer, I., Linde, R., Funk, M., Gungor, T., Krackhardt, B. & Kornhuber, B. (1992) Incidence of development of factor VIII and factor IX inhibitors in haemophiliacs. Lancet, 339, 594598.
  • Einfeld, D.A., Brown, J.P., Valentine, M.A., Clark, E.A. & Ledbetter, J.A. (1988) Molecular cloning of the human B cell CD20 receptor predicts a hydrophobic protein with multiple transmembrane domains. EMBO Journal, 7, 711717.
  • Ettingshausen, C.E. & Kreuz, W. (2005) Role of von Willebrand factor in immune tolerance induction. Blood Coagulation and Fibrinolysis, 16(Suppl. 1), S27S31.
  • Ewenstein, B.M., Hoots, W.K., Lusher, J.M., DiMichele, D., White, G.C., Adelman, B. & Nadeau, K. (2000) Inhibition of CD40 ligand (CD154) in the treatment of factor VIII inhibitors. Haematologica, 85, 3539.
  • Fakharzadeh, S.S. & Kazazian, H.H. Jr (2000) Correlation between factor VIII genotype and inhibitor development in hemophilia A. Seminars in Thrombosis and Hemostasis, 26, 167171.
  • Fay, P.J., Coumans, J.V. & Walker, F.J. (1991) von Willebrand factor mediates protection of factor VIII from activated protein C-catalyzed inactivation. Journal of Biological Chemistry, 266, 21722177.
  • Fehervari, Z. & Sakaguchi, S. (2004) Development and function of CD25+CD4+ regulatory T cells. Current Opinion in Immunology, 16, 203208.
  • Fijnvandraat, K., Peters, M. & Ten Cate, J.W. (1995) Inter-individual variation in half-life of infused recombinant factor VIII is related to pre-infusion von Willebrand factor antigen levels. British Journal of Haematology, 91, 474476.
  • Franchini, M., Salvagno, G.L. & Lippi, G. (2006a) Inhibitors in mild/moderate haemophilia A: an update. Thrombosis and Haemostasis, 96, 113118.
  • Franchini, M., Veneri, D., Lippi, G. & Stenner, R. (2006b) The efficacy of rituximab in the treatment of inhibitor-associated hemostatic disorders. Thrombosis and Haemostasis, 96, 119125.
  • Fulcher, C.A., De Graaf, M.S. & Zimmerman, T.S. (1987) FVIII inhibitor IgG subclass and FVIII polypeptide specificity determined by immunoblotting. Blood, 69, 14751480.
  • Gensana, M., Altisent, C., Aznar, J.A., Casana, P., Hernandez, F., Jorquera, J.I., Magallon, M., Massot, M. & Puig, L. (2001) Influence of von Willebrand factor on the reactivity of human factor VIII inhibitors with factor VIII. Haemophilia, 7, 369374.
  • Gershon, R.K. (1975) A disquisition on suppressor T cells. Transplantation Reviews, 26, 170185.
  • Gilles, J.G., Arnout, J., Vermylen, J. & Saint-Remy, J.M. (1993) Anti-factor VIII antibodies of hemophiliac patients are frequently directed towards nonfunctional determinants and do not exhibit isotypic restriction. Blood, 82, 24522461.
  • Gilles, J.G., Desqueper, B., Lenk, H., Vermylen, J. & Saint-Remy, J.M. (1996) Neutralizing antiidiotypic antibodies to factor VIII inhibitors after desensitization in patients with hemophilia A. Journal of Clinical Investigation, 97, 13821388.
  • Gilles, J.G., Grailly, S.C., De Maeyer, M., Jacquemin, M.G., VanderElst, L.P. & Saint-Remy, J.M. (2004) In vivo neutralization of a C2 domain-specific human anti-Factor VIII inhibitor by an anti-idiotypic antibody. Blood, 103, 26172623.
  • Hataye, J., Moon, J.J., Khoruts, A., Reilly, C. & Jenkins, M.K. (2006) Naive and memory CD4+ T cell survival controlled by clonal abundance. Science, 312, 114116.
  • Hausl, C., Maier, E., Schwarz, H.P., Ahmad, R.U., Turecek, P.L., Dorner, F. & Reipert, B.M. (2002) Long-term persistence of anti-factor VIII antibody-secreting cells in hemophilic mice after treatment with human factor VIII. Thrombosis and Haemostasis, 87, 840845.
  • Hausl, C., Ahmad, R.U., Schwarz, H.P., Muchitsch, E.M., Turecek, P.L., Dorner, F. & Reipert, B.M. (2004) Preventing restimulation of memory B cells in hemophilia A: a potential new strategy for the treatment of antibody-dependent immune disorders. Blood, 104, 115122.
  • Hausl, C., Ahmad, R.U., Sasgary, M., Doering, C.B., Lollar, P., Richter, G., Schwarz, H.P., Turecek, P.L. & Reipert, B.M. (2005) High-dose factor VIII inhibits factor VIII-specific memory B cells in hemophilia A with factor VIII inhibitors. Blood, 106, 34153422.
  • Hay, C.R.M. (1998) Factor VIII inhibitors in mild and moderate-severity haemophilia A. Haemophilia, 4, 558563.
  • Hay, C.R.M. (2005) Inhibitors to factor VIII/IX: treatment of inhibitors – immune tolerance induction. In: Textbook of Hemophilia (ed. by C.A.Lee, E.E.Berntrop & W.K.Hoots), pp. 7477. Blackwell Publishing Ltd., Malden, MA.
  • Hay, C.R., Keegan, J., Goldstone, J., Hirsch, S., Ewing, N., Abshire, T. & DiMichele, D.M. (2006a) International immune tolerance (ITI) study: frequency of central venous line infections and effect on ITI outcome. Haemophilia, 12(Suppl. 2), 14PO379.
  • Hay, C.R., Recht, M., Carcao, M. & Reipert, B.M. (2006b) Current and future approaches to inhibitor management and aversion. Seminars in Thrombosis and Hemostasis, 32(Suppl. 2), 1521.
  • Haya, S., Lopez, M.F., Aznar, J.A. & Batlle, J. (2001) Immune tolerance treatment in haemophilia patients with inhibitors: the Spanish Registry. Haemophilia, 7, 154159.
  • Healey, J.F., Parker, E.T., Barrow, R.T., Bretton, V.S., Church, W.R. & Lollar, P. (2003) Mapping the humoral response to factor VIII using single human domain hybrid factor VIII molecules. Blood, 102, 562A.
  • Hill-Eubanks, D.C., Parker, C.G. & Lollar, P. (1989) Differential proteolytic activation of factor VIII-von Willebrand factor complex by thrombin. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 86, 65086512.
  • Hodge, G. & Han, P. (2001) Effect of intermediate-purity factor VIII (FVIII) concentrate on lymphocyte proliferation and apoptosis: transforming growth factor-beta is a significant immunomodulatory component of FVIII. British Journal of Haematology, 115, 376381.
  • Hodge, G., Flower, R. & Han, P. (1999) Effect of factor VIII concentrate on leucocyte cytokine production: characterization of TGF-beta as an immunomodulatory component in plasma-derived factor VIII concentrate. British Journal of Haematology, 106, 784791.
  • Hori, S., Nomura, T. & Sakaguchi, S. (2003) Control of regulatory T cell development by the transcription factor Foxp3. Science, 299, 10571061.
  • Hoyer, L.W. (1981) The factor VIII complex: structure and function. Blood, 58, 113.
  • Hoyer, L.W. (1994) Hemophilia A. New England Journal of Medicine, 330, 3847.
  • Hoyer, L.W., Aledort, L.M., Lisher, J.M., Reisner, H.M. & White, G.C. (1995) The incidence of factor VIII inhibitors in patients with severe hemophilia A. In: Inhibitors to Coagulation Factors (ed. by L.M.Aledort, L.W.Hoyer, J.M.Lusher, H.M.Reisner & G.C.White), pp. 3545. Plenum, New York.
  • Hoyer, B.F., Manz, R.A., Radbruch, A. & Hiepe, F. (2005) Long-lived plasma cells and their contribution to autoimmunity. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 1050, 124133.
  • Inoue, T., Shima, M., Takeyama, M., Matsumoto, T., Nishiya, K., Tanaka, I., Sakurai, Y., Giddings, J.C. & Yoshioka, A. (2006) Higher recovery of factor VIII (FVIII) with intermediate FVIII/von Willebrand factor concentrate than with recombinant FVIII in a haemophilia A patient with an inhibitor. Haemophilia, 12, 110113.
  • Kappos, L., Comi, G., Panitch, H., Oger, J., Antel, J., Conlon, P. & Steinman, L. (2000) Induction of a non-encephalitogenic type 2 T helper-cell autoimmune response in multiple sclerosis after administration of an altered peptide ligand in a placebo-controlled, randomized phase II trial. The Altered Peptide Ligand in Relapsing MS Study Group. Nature Medicine, 6, 11761182.
  • Kasper, C.K., Kim, H.C., Gomperts, E.D., Smith, K.J., Salzman, P.M., Tipping, D., Miller, R. & Montgomery, R.M. (1991) In vivo recovery and survival of monoclonal-antibody-purified factor VIII concentrates. Thrombosis and Haemostasis, 66, 730733.
  • Katz, D.H., Hamaoka, T. & Benacerraf, B. (1974) Immunological tolerance in bone marrow-derived lymphocytes. 3. Tolerance induction in primed B cells by hapten conjugates of unrelated immunogenic or ‘nonimmunogenic’ carriers. Journal of Experimental Medicine, 139, 14641472.
  • Kerfoot, S.M., Long, E.M., Hickey, M.J., Andonegui, G., Lapointe, B.M., Zanardo, R.C., Bonder, C., James, W.G., Robbins, S.M. & Kubes, P. (2004) TLR4 contributes to disease-inducing mechanisms resulting in central nervous system autoimmune disease. Journal of Immunology, 173, 70707077.
  • Koedam, J.A., Meijers, J.C., Sixma, J.J. & Bouma, B.N. (1988) Inactivation of human factor VIII by activated protein C. Cofactor activity of protein S and protective effect of von Willebrand factor. Journal of Clinical Investigation, 82, 12361243.
  • Koedam, J.A., Hamer, R.J., Beeser-Visser, N.H., Bouma, B.N. & Sixma, J.J. (1990) The effect of von Willebrand factor on activation of factor VIII by factor Xa. European Journal of Biochemistry, 189, 229234.
  • Kreuz, W., Ettingshausen, C.E., Auerswald, G., Saguer, I.M., Becker, S., Funk, M., Heller, C., Klarmann, D. & Klingebiel, T. (2003) Epidemiology of inhibitors and current treatment strategies. Haematologica, 88, EREP04.
  • Lacroix-Desmazes, S., Moreau, A., Sooryanarayana Bonnemain, C., Stieltjes, N., Pashov, A., Sultan, Y., Hoebeke, J., Kazatchkine, M.D. & Kaveri, S.V. (1999) Catalytic activity of antibodies against factor VIII in patients with hemophilia A. Nature Medicine, 5, 10441047.
  • Lacroix-Desmazes, S., Wootla, B., Dasgupta, S., Delignat, S., Bayry, J., Reinbolt, J., Hoebeke, J., Saenko, E., Kazatchkine, M.D., Friboulet, A., Christophe, O., Nagaraja, V. & Kaveri, S.V. (2006) Catalytic IgG from patients with hemophilia A inactivate therapeutic factor VIII. Journal of Immunology, 177, 13551363.
  • Lang, K.S., Recher, M., Junt, T., Navarini, A.A., Harris, N.L., Freigang, S., Odermatt, B., Conrad, C., Ittner, L.M., Bauer, S., Luther, S.A., Uematsu, S., Akira, S., Hengartner, H. & Zinkernagel, R.M. (2005) Toll-like receptor engagement converts T-cell autoreactivity into overt autoimmune disease. Nature Medicine, 11, 138145.
  • Leadbetter, E.A., Rifkin, I.R. & Marshak-Rothstein, A. (2003) Toll-like receptors and activation of autoreactive B cells. Current Directions in Autoimmunity, 6, 105122.
  • Lei, T.C. & Scott, D.W. (2005) Induction of tolerance to factor VIII inhibitors by gene therapy with immunodominant A2 and C2 domains presented by B cells as Ig fusion proteins. Blood, 105, 48654870.
  • Lenk, H. (2000) The German Registry of immune tolerance treatment in hemophilia – 1999 update. Haematologica, 85, 4547.
  • Lipscomb, M.F. & Masten, B.J. (2002) Dendritic cells: immune regulators in health and disease. Physiological Reviews, 82, 97130.
  • Lollar, P., Hill-Eubanks, D.C. & Parker, C.G. (1988) Association of the factor VIII light chain with von Willebrand factor. Journal of Biological Chemistry, 263, 1045110455.
  • Lusher, J.M., Arkin, S., Abildgaard, C.F. & Schwartz, R.S. (1993) Recombinant factor VIII for the treatment of previously untreated patients with hemophilia A. Safety, efficacy, and development of inhibitors. Kogenate Previously Untreated Patient Study Group. New England Journal of Medicine, 328, 453459.
  • Lynch, R.G., Graff, R.J., Sirisinha, S., Simms, E.S. & Eisen, H.N. (1972) Myeloma proteins as tumor-specific transplantation antigens. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 69, 15401544.
  • Maloney, D.G. (2005) Immunotherapy for non-Hodgkin's lymphoma: monoclonal antibodies and vaccines. Journal of Clinical Oncology, 23, 64216428.
  • Maloney, D.G., Liles, T.M., Czerwinski, D.K., Waldichuk, C., Rosenberg, J., Grillo-Lopez, A. & Levy, R. (1994) Phase I clinical trial using escalating single-dose infusion of chimeric anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody (IDEC-C2B8) in patients with recurrent B-cell lymphoma. Blood, 84, 24572466.
  • Manz, R.A., Hauser, A.E., Hiepe, F. & Radbruch, A. (2005) Maintenance of serum antibody levels. Annual Review of Immunology, 23, 367386.
  • Margulies, D.H. (2001) TCR avidity: it's not how strong you make it, it's how you make it strong. Nature Immunology, 2, 669670.
  • Mariani, G. & Kroner, B. (1999) International immune tolerance registry, 1997 update. Vox Sanguinis, 77(Suppl. 1), 2527.
  • Mariani, G., Siragusa, S. & Kroner, B.L. (2003) Immune tolerance induction in hemophilia A: a review. Seminars in Thrombosis and Hemostasis, 29, 6976.
  • Marshall, S.E., Cobbold, S.P., Davies, J.D., Martin, G.M., Phillips, J.M. & Waldmann, H. (1996) Tolerance and suppression in a primed immune system. Transplantation, 62, 16141621.
  • Marty, R.R., Dirnhofer, S., Mauermann, N., Schweikert, S., Akira, S., Hunziker, L., Penninger, J.M. & Eriksson, U. (2006) MyD88 signaling controls autoimmune myocarditis induction. Circulation, 113, 258265.
  • Matzinger, P. (1994) Tolerance, danger, and the extended family. Annual Review of Immunology, 12, 9911045.
  • Mauser-Bunschoten, E.P., Nieuwenhuis, H.K., Roosendaal, G. & Van Den Berg, H.M. (1995) Low-dose immune tolerance induction in hemophilia A patients with inhibitors. Blood, 86, 983988.
  • McGinniss, M.J., Kazazian, H.H. Jr, Hoyer, L.W., Bi, L., Inaba, H. & Antonarakis, S.E. (1993) Spectrum of mutations in CRM-positive and CRM-reduced hemophilia A. Genomics, 15, 392398.
  • McHeyzer-Williams, L.J. & McHeyzer-Williams, M.G. (2005) Antigen-specific memory B cell development. Annual Review of Immunology, 23, 487513.
  • Metcalf, E.S. & Klinman, N.R. (1976) In vitro tolerance induction of neonatal murine B cells. Journal of Experimental Medicine, 143, 13271340.
  • Mitchison, N.A. (1964) Induction of immunological paralysis in two zones of dosage. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London. Series B: Biological Sciences, 161, 275292.
  • Muchitsch, E.M., Turecek, P.L., Zimmermann, K., Pichler, L., Auer, W., Richter, G., Gritsch, H. & Schwarz, H.P. (1999) Phenotypic expression of murine hemophilia. Thrombosis and Haemostasis, 82, 13711373.
  • Nilsson, I.M., Berntorp, E. & Zettervall, O. (1988) Induction of immune tolerance in patients with hemophilia and antibodies to factor VIII by combined treatment with intravenous IgG, cyclophosphamide, and factor VIII. New England Journal of Medicine, 318, 947950.
  • Nishino, M., Girma, J.P., Rothschild, C., Fressinaud, E. & Meyer, D. (1989) New variant of von Willebrand disease with defective binding to factor VIII. Blood, 74, 15911599.
  • Oldenburg, J., Schroder, J., Brackmann, H.H., Muller-Reible, C., Schwaab, R. & Tuddenham, E. (2004) Environmental and genetic factors influencing inhibitor development. Seminars in Hematology, 41, 8288.
  • Palmer, E. (2003) Negative selection-clearing out the bad apples from the T-cell repertoire. Nature Reviews. Immunology, 3, 383391.
  • Parker, E.T., Healey, J.F., Barrow, R.T., Craddock, H.N. & Lollar, P. (2004) Reduction of the inhibitory antibody response to human factor VIII in hemophilia A mice by mutagenesis of the A2 domain B-cell epitope. Blood, 104, 704710.
  • Perosa, F., Favoino, E., Caragnano, M.A., Prete, M. & Dammacco, F. (2005) CD20: a target antigen for immunotherapy of autoimmune diseases. Autoimmunity Reviews, 4, 526531.
  • Pfistershammer, K., Stöckl, J., Siekmann, J., Turecek, P.L., Schwarz, H.P. & Reipert, B.M. (2006) Recombinant factor VIII and factor VIII-von Willebrand factor complex do not present danger signals for human dendritic cells. Thrombosis and Haemostasis, 96, 309316.
  • Pool, J.G., Gershgold, E.J. & Pappenhagen, A.R. (1964) High-potency antihaemophilic factor concentrate prepared from cryoglobulin precipitate. Nature, 203, 312.
  • Pulendran, B. (2004) Immune activation: death, danger and dendritic cells. Current Biology, 14, R30R32.
  • Purohit, V.S., Ramani, K., Sarkar, R., Kazazian, H.H. Jr, & Balasubramanian, S.V. (2005) Lower inhibitor development in hemophilia A mice following administration of recombinant factor VIII-O-phospho-l-serine complex. Journal of Biological Chemistry, 280, 1759317600.
  • Qian, J., Borovok, M., Bi, L., Kazazian, H.H. Jr, & Hoyer, L.W. (1999) Inhibitor development and T cell response to human factor VIII in murine hemophilia A. Thrombosis and Haemostasis, 81, 240244.
  • Qian, J., Burkly, L.C., Smith, E.P., Ferrant, J.L., Hoyer, L.W., Scott, D.W. & Haudenschild, C.C. (2000a) Role of CD154 in the secondary immune response: the reduction of pre-existing splenic germinal centers and anti-factor VIII inhibitor titer. European Journal of Immunology, 30, 25482554.
  • Qian, J., Collins, M., Sharpe, A.H. & Hoyer, L.W. (2000b) Prevention and treatment of factor VIII inhibitors in murine hemophilia A. Blood, 95, 13241329.
  • Rajewsky, K. (1996) Clonal selection and learning in the antibody system. Nature, 381, 751758.
  • Rawle, F.E., Pratt, K.P., Labelle, A., Weiner, H.L., Hough, C. & Lillicrap, D. (2006) Induction of partial immune tolerance to factor VIII through prior mucosal exposure to the factor VIII C2 domain. Journal of Thrombosis and Haemostasis, 10, 21722179.
  • Reipert, B.M., Ahmad, R.U., Turecek, P.L. & Schwarz, H.P. (2000) Characterization of antibodies induced by human factor VIII in a murine knockout model of hemophilia A. Thrombosis and Haemostasis, 84, 826832.
  • Reipert, B.M., Sasgary, M., Ahmad, R.U., Auer, W., Turecek, P.L. & Schwarz, H.P. (2001) Blockade of CD40/CD40 ligand interactions prevents induction of factor VIII inhibitors in hemophilic mice but does not induce lasting immune tolerance. Thrombosis and Haemostasis, 86, 13451352.
  • Rock, K.L., Hearn, A., Chen, C.J. & Shi, Y. (2005) Natural endogenous adjuvants. Springer Seminars in Immunology, 26, 213246.
  • Rossi, G., Sarkar, J. & Scandella, D. (2001) Long-term induction of immune tolerance after blockade of CD40-CD40L interaction in a mouse model of hemophilia A. Blood, 97, 27502757.
  • Sakaguchi, S., Sakaguchi, N., Asano, M., Itoh, M. & Toda, M. (1995) Immunologic self-tolerance maintained by activated T cells expressing IL-2 receptor alpha-chains (CD25). Breakdown of a single mechanism of self-tolerance causes various autoimmune diseases. Journal of Immunology, 155, 11511164.
  • Sakaguchi, S., Sakaguchi, N., Shimizu, J., Yamazaki, S., Sakihama, T., Itoh, M., Kuniyasu, Y., Nomura, T., Toda, M. & Takahashi, T. (2001) Immunologic tolerance maintained by CD25+ CD4+ regulatory T cells: their common role in controlling autoimmunity, tumor immunity, and transplantation tolerance. Immunological Reviews, 182, 1832.
  • Sallusto, F., Geginat, J. & Lanzavecchia, A. (2004) Central memory and effector memory T cell subsets: function, generation, and maintenance. Annual Review of Immunology, 22, 745763.
  • Sarkar, R., Gao, G.P., Chirmule, N., Tazelaar, J. & Kazazian, H.H. Jr (2000) Partial correction of murine hemophilia A with neo-antigenic murine factor VIII. Human Gene Therapy, 11, 881894.
  • Sasgary, M., Ahmad, R.U., Schwarz, H.P., Turecek, P.L. & Reipert, B.M. (2002) Single cell analysis of factor VIII-specific T cells in hemophilic mice after treatment with human factor VIII. Thrombosis and Haemostasis, 87, 266272.
  • Scandella, D. (2002) New characteristics of anti-factor VIII inhibitor antibody epitopes and unusual immune responses to Factor VIII. Seminars in Thrombosis and Hemostasis, 28, 291296.
  • Schwaab, R., Brackmann, H.H., Meyer, C., Seehafer, J., Kirchgesser, M., Haack, A., Olek, K., Tuddenham, E.G. & Oldenburg, J. (1995) Haemophilia A: mutation type determines risk of inhibitor formation. Thrombosis and Haemostasis, 74, 14021406.
  • Scully, R., Qin, S., Cobbold, S. & Waldmann, H. (1994) Mechanisms in CD4 antibody-mediated transplantation tolerance: kinetics of induction, antigen dependency and role of regulatory T cells. European Journal of Immunology, 24, 23832392.
  • Shi, Y., Evans, J.E. & Rock, K.L. (2003) Molecular identification of a danger signal that alerts the immune system to dying cells. Nature, 425, 516521.
  • Shima, M., Nakai, H., Scandella, D., Tanaka, I., Sawamoto, Y., Kamisue, S., Morichika, S., Murakami, T. & Yoshioka, A. (1995) Common inhibitory effects of human anti-C2 domain inhibitor alloantibodies on factor VIII binding to von Willebrand factor. British Journal of Haematology, 91, 714721.
  • Siggs, O.M., Makaroff, L.E. & Liston, A. (2006) The why and how of thymocyte negative selection. Current Opinion in Immunology, 18, 175183.
  • Steinman, R.M. (2003) The control of immunity and tolerance by dendritic cells. Pathologie-Biologie (Paris), 51, 5960.
  • Suzuki, T., Arai, M., Amano, K., Kagawa, K. & Fukutake, K. (1996) Factor VIII inhibitor antibodies with C2 domain specificity are less inhibitory to factor VIII complexed with von Willebrand factor. Thrombosis and Haemostasis, 76, 749754.
  • Takeda, K., Kaisho, T. & Akira, S. (2003) Toll-like receptors. Annual Review of Immunology, 21, 335376.
  • Thorpe, R., Dilger, P., Dawson, N.J. & Barrowcliffe, T.W. (1989) Inhibition of interleukin-2 secretion by factor VIII concentrates: a possible cause of immunosuppression in haemophiliacs. British Journal of Haematology, 71, 387391.
  • Tuddenham, E.G. & McVey, J.H. (1998) The genetic basis of inhibitor development in haemophilia A. Haemophilia, 4, 543545.
  • Uematsu, S. & Akira, S. (2006) The role of Toll-like receptors in immune disorders. Expert Opinion on Biological Therapy, 6, 203214.
  • Valentine, M.A., Meier, K.E., Rossie, S. & Clark, E.A. (1989) Phosphorylation of the CD20 phosphoprotein in resting B lymphocytes. Regulation by protein kinase C. Journal of Biological Chemistry, 264, 1128211287.
  • Van Helden, P., Gouw, S., Mauser-Bunschoten, E., Van Den Berg, M.H. & Voorberg, J. (2006) Variation in antibody subclass pattern during immune tolerance therapy. Haemophilia, 12(Suppl. 2), 14PO431.
  • Villard, S., Lacroix-Desmazes, S., Kieber-Emmons, T., Piquer, D., Grailly, S., Benhida, A., Kaveri, S.V., Saint-Remy, J.M. & Granier, C. (2003) Peptide decoys selected by phage display block in vitro and in vivo activity of a human anti-FVIII inhibitor. Blood, 102, 949952.
  • Vinuesa, C.G., Tangye, S.G., Moser, B. & Mackay, C.R. (2005) Follicular B helper T cells in antibody responses and autoimmunity. Nature Reviews Immunology, 5, 853865.
  • Vlot, A.J., Koppelman, S.J., Van Den Berg, M.H., Bouma, B.N. & Sixma, J.J. (1995) The affinity and stoichiometry of binding of human factor VIII to von Willebrand factor. Blood, 85, 31503157.
  • Vlot, A.J., Koppelman, S.J., Meijers, J.C., Dama, C., Van Den Berg, H.M., Bouma, B.N., Sixma, J.J. & Willems, G.M. (1996) Kinetics of factor VIII-von Willebrand factor association. Blood, 87, 18091816.
  • Vlot, A.J., Mauser-Bunschoten, E.P., Zarkova, A.G., Haan, E., Kruitwagen, C.L., Sixma, J.J. & Van Den Berg, H.M. (2000) The half-life of infused factor VIII is shorter in hemophiliac patients with blood group O than in those with blood group A. Thrombosis and Haemostasis, 83, 6569.
  • Wadhwa, M., Dilger, P., Tubbs, J., Barrowcliffe, T., Mahon, B. & Thorpe, R. (1992) Mechanisms of inhibition of T cell IL-2 secretion by factor VIII concentrates. British Journal of Haematology, 82, 575583.
  • Wadhwa, M., Dilger, P., Tubbs, J., Mire-Sluis, A., Barrowcliffe, T. & Thorpe, R. (1994) Identification of transforming growth factor-beta as a contaminant in factor VIII concentrates: a possible link with immunosuppressive effects in hemophiliacs. Blood, 84, 20212030.
  • Waldmann, H. (2002) Reprogramming the immune system. Immunological Reviews, 185, 227235.
  • Walker, L.S. & Abbas, A.K. (2002) The enemy within: keeping self-reactive T cells at bay in the periphery. Nature Reviews Immunology, 2, 1119.
  • Weiss, H.J., Sussman, I.I. & Hoyer, L.W. (1977) Stabilization of factor VIII in plasma by the von Willebrand factor. Studies on posttransfusion and dissociated factor VIII and in patients with von Willebrand's disease. Journal of Clinical Investigation, 60, 390404.
  • Winsor-Hines, D., Merrill, C., O'Mahony, M., Rao, P.E., Cobbold, S.P., Waldmann, H., Ringler, D.J. & Ponath, P.D. (2004) Induction of immunological tolerance/hyporesponsiveness in baboons with a nondepleting CD4 antibody. Journal of Immunology, 173, 47154723.
  • Wraith, D.C. (2006) Peptide-based therapy for autoimmune diseases. Drug Discovery Today, 3, 3540.
  • Wraith, D.C., Nicolson, K.S. & Whitley, N.T. (2004) Regulatory CD4+ T cells and the control of autoimmune disease. Current Opinion in Immunology, 16, 695701.
  • Wu, H., Reding, M., Qian, J., Okita, D.K., Parker, E., Lollar, P., Hoyer, L.W. & Conti-Fine, B.M. (2001) Mechanism of the immune response to human factor VIII in murine hemophilia A. Thrombosis and Haemostasis, 85, 125133.