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Keywords:

  • myelodysplastic syndromes;
  • prognostic factors;
  • cytogenetics

Summary

This study correlated chromosomal defects with French–American–British (FAB)/World Health Organization (WHO) classification subtypes, proposed a revised International Prognostic Scoring System (IPSS) cytogenetic grouping; and established which classification, when used with the IPSS cytogenetic categories, best predicted clinical outcome in the myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS). A higher prevalence of chromosomal defects and distinct defects were observed in patients with multi-lineage dysplasia and a blast cell percentage >10%. Abnormalities of the long arm of chromosome 3, del(7)(q31q35), trisomy 8, del(11)(q14q23), del(12p) and 20q- could be segregated from their respective IPSS cytogenetic categories and used to develop new cytogenetic subgroups. Clinical parameters, FAB/WHO classification, IPSS score and standard or revised cytogenetic categories were statistically relevant for overall survival (OS) and progression-free intervals (PFI) and were included within five distinct multivariate models compared by the Akaike Information Criterion. To predict OS, the best models included age, WHO classification and standard or revised IPSS cytogenetic categories; to predict PFI, the best model included the same variables and revised cytogenetic categories. In conclusion, (i) the WHO classification was associated with a more homogeneous cytogenetic pattern than the FAB classification, (ii) WHO classification and standard/revised IPSS cytogenetic categories were much more effective than IPSS for predicting MDS clinical outcome, (iii) revised cytogenetic subgroups predicted PFI more effectively than standard categories.