Haemophilia A mutations in the UK: results of screening one-third of the population


Dr P. M. Green, Medical & Molecular Genetics, Kings College London, 7th Floor, Guy’s Tower, London SE1 9RT, UK. E-mail: peter.green@genetics.kcl.ac.uk


One-third of the UK haemophilia A population was screened to establish a national database of mutations and pedigrees and advance knowledge of the disease. The following mutations were found: 131 intron 22- and 13 intron1-breaking inversions; 11 gross deletions and an insertion; 65 frameshifts; three in-frame deletions and one insertion; 46 nonsense; 30 intronic mutations affecting splice sites and four generating new sites; 469 non-synonymous mutations due to 203 different base substitutions of which four affected, and nine were predicted to affect, splicing; three promoter mutations; two synonymous exon 14 mutations possibly affecting splicing; two VWF mutations. Of the above mutations, 176 are not listed in the Haemophilia A Mutation, Structure, Test and Resource Site (HAMSTeRS). Four gross deletions arose by non-homologous end-joining; we detected unexpected splicing in some mutations; substitution of amino acids conserved for less than 90 million years are rare; the risk of developing inhibitors for patients with nonsense mutations is greater when the stop codon is in the 3′ half of the mRNA; changes likely to generate splice sites causing frameshifts are over-represented among non-synonymous mutations associated with inhibitors; our data and those in HAMSTeRS enabled the size of the spectrum of specific mutations causing the disease to be estimated and to determine how much of it is known.