Mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) are being used increasingly in clinical trials for a range of regenerative and inflammatory diseases. Bone marrow is the traditional source but is relatively inaccessible in large volume. MSC have now been derived from tissues other than bone marrow including placenta and adipose tissue. We have used placenta obtained after delivery as a source of MSC and have been unable to detect any marked differences from marrow-derived MSC in terms of cell surface phenotype, chemokine receptor display, mesodermal differentiation capacity or immunosuppressive ability. This report described our manufacturing process for isolating and expanding placenta-derived human MSC and their safe infusion into the first patient in a clinical trial program of human placenta-derived MSC.