Dyskeratosis congenita (DC) is a rare inherited syndrome exhibiting marked clinical and genetic heterogeneity. It is characterised by mucocutaneous abnormalities, bone marrow failure and a predisposition to cancer. Bone marrow failure is the principal cause of premature mortality. Studies over the last 10 years have demonstrated that DC is principally a disease of defective telomere maintenance. All DC patients have very short telomeres and the genetically characterised cases of DC have mutations in six genes which either encode components of the telomerase complex (DKC1, TERC, TERT, NOP10, NHP2) or shelterin (TINF2); these are important in the elongation and protection of the telomeric end, respectively. These advances have led to the recognition of cryptic forms of DC, such as presentations with aplastic anaemia and myelodysplasia. They have also increased our understanding of normal haematopoiesis and provided new insights to the aetiology of some cases of aplastic anaemia and related haematological disorders.