• aplastic anaemia;
  • paroxysmal nocturnal haemoglobinuria;
  • myelodysplastic syndrome;
  • PIGA gene;
  • haematopoietic stem cells


Peripheral blood from 489 recently diagnosed patients with aplastic anaemia (AA) and 316 with refractory anaemia (RA) of myelodysplastic syndrome was evaluated to characterize CD55CD59 [paroxysmal nocturnal haemoglobinuria (PNH)]-type blood cells associated with bone marrow (BM) failure. PNH-type cells were detected in 57% and 20% of patients with AA and RA, respectively. The percentages of PNH-type granulocytes ranged from 0·003% to 94·2% and the distribution was log-normal with a median of 0·178%. Serial analyses of 75 patients with PNH-type cells over 5 years revealed that the percentage of PNH-type cells constantly increased in 13 (17%), persisted in 44 (59%), disappeared in the remaining 18 (24%) although even in the ‘Disappearance’ group, PNH-type granulocytes persisted for at least 6 months. A scattergram profile of PNH-type cells unique to each patient persisted regardless of the response to immunosuppressive therapy and only single PIGA mutations were detected in PNH-type granulocytes sorted from four patients. These findings suggest that the PNH-type cells in patients with BM failure are derived from single PIGA mutant haematopoietic stem cells even when their percentages are <1% and their fate depends on the proliferation and self-maintenance properties of the individual PIGA mutants.