Health-related quality of life (QOL) is a vital concern in the pre-treatment consent process and post-treatment care of recipients of haematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT). We propose that comprehensive care of such patients requires an integration of knowledge of the impact of HCT on QOL, assessment of QOL, as well as resources available for intervention. This knowledge may significantly improve patient care when incorporated into daily clinical practice in the transplant setting. As a framework for this approach, this article reviews the literature on QOL after allogeneic and autologous HCT for adults with haematological malignancies. We then discuss evidence in support of the beneficial impact of clinical QOL assessment, and finally evaluate behavioural interventions that show promise to maintain or improve QOL after HCT.