SEARCH

SEARCH BY CITATION

References

  • Altman, L.K. (1998) Who Goes First? The Story of Self-Experimentation in Medicine. University of California Press, Berkeley and Los Angeles, California, USA.
  • Ballem, P.J., Segal, G.M., Stratton, J.R., Gernsheimer, T., Adamson, J.W. & Slichter, S.J. (1987) Mechanisms of thrombocytopenia in chronic autoimmune thrombocytopenic purpura. Evidence of both impaired platelet production and increased platelet clearance. Journal of Clinical Investigation, 80, 3340.
  • Bartley, T.D., Bogenberger, J., Hunt, P., Li, Y.S., Lu, H.S., Martin, F., Chang, M.S., Samal, B., Nichol, J.L., Swift, S., Johnson, M.J., Hsu, R.-Y., Parker, V.P., Suggs, S., Skrine, J.D., Merewether, L.A., Clogston, C., Hsu, E., Hokom, M.M., Hornkohl, A., Choi, E., Pangelinan, M., Sun, Y., Mar, V., McNinch, J., Simonet, L., Jacobsen, F., Xie, C., Shutter, J., Chute, H., Basu, R., Selander, L., Trollinger, D., Sieu, L., Padilla, D., Trail, G., Elliott, G., Izumi, R., Covey, T., Crouse, J., Garcia, A., Xu, W., Del Castillo, J., Biron, J., Cole, S., Hu, M.C.-T., Pacifici, R., Ponting, I., Saris, C., Wen, D., Yung, Y.P., Lin, H. & Rosselman, R.A. (1994) Identification and cloning of a megakaryocyte growth and development factor that is a ligand for the cytokine receptor Mpl. Cell, 77, 11171124.
  • Bizzozero, G. (1882) Ueber einen neuen Forrnbestandteil des Blutes und dessen Rolle bei der Thrombose und Blutgerinnung. Virchows Archiv fur Pathologische Anatomie und Physiologie und fur Klinische Medizin, 90, 261332.
  • Blanchette, M. & Freedman, J. (1998) The history of idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP). Transfusion Science, 19, 231236.
  • Branehog, I., Kutti, J. & Weinfeld, A. (1974) Platelet survival and platelet production in idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP). British Journal of Haematology, 27, 127143.
  • Brohm, F. (1883) Quoted by Krauss, E. Über purpura. Inaugural dissertation. Heidelberg, 1883.
  • Bussel, J.B., Graziano, J.N., Kimberly, R.P., Pahwa, S. & Aledort, L.M. (1991) Intravenous anti-D treatment of immune thrombocytopenic purpura: analysis of efficacy, toxicity, and mechanism of effect. Blood, 77, 18841893.
  • Bussel, J.B., Provan, D., Shamsi, T., Cheng, G., Psaila, B., Kovaleva, L., Salama, A., Jenkins, J.M., Roychowdhury, D., Mayer, B., Stone, N. & Arning, M. (2009a) Effect of eltrombopag on platelet counts and bleeding during treatment of chronic idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura: a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Lancet, 373, 641648.
  • Bussel, J.B., Kuter, D.J., Pullarkat, V., Lyons, R.M., Guo, M. & Nichol, J.L. (2009b) Safety and efficacy of long-term treatment with romiplostim in thrombocytopenic patients with chronic ITP. Blood, 113, 21612171.
  • Chang, M., Nakagawa, P.A., Williams, S.A., Schwartz, M.R., Imfeld, K.L., Buzby, J.S. & Nugent, D.J. (2003) Immune thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP) plasma and purified ITP monoclonal autoantibodies inhibit megakaryocytopoiesis in vitro. Blood, 102, 887895.
  • Cheng, G., Saleh, M.N., Marcher, C., Vasey, S., Mayer, B., Aivado, M., Arning, M., Stone, N.L. & Bussel, J.B. (2010) Eltrombopag for management of chronic immune thrombocytopenia (RAISE): a 6-month, randomised, phase 3 study. Lancet. E-pub ahead of print. doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(10)60959-2.
  • Clarkson, S.B., Bussel, J.B., Kimberly, R.P., Valinsky, J.E., Nachman, R.L. & Unkeless, J.C. (1986) Treatment of refractory immune thrombocytopenic purpura with an anti-Fc gamma-receptor antibody. New England Journal of Medicine, 314, 12361239.
  • Cooper, N. & Bussel, J. (2006) The pathogenesis of immune thrombocytopaenic purpura. British Journal of Haematology, 133, 364374.
  • Cooper, N., Woloski, B.M., Fodero, E.M., Novoa, M., Leber, M., Beer, J.H. & Bussel, J.B. (2002) Does treatment with intermittent infusions of intravenous anti-D allow a proportion of adults with recently diagnosed immune thrombocytopenic purpura to avoid splenectomy? Blood, 99, 19221927.
  • Cronkite, E.P. (1944) Further studies of platelet-reducing substances in splenic extracts. Annals of Internal Medicine, 20, 5262.
  • Dameshek, W. & Miller, E.B. (1946) The megakaryocytes in idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura, a form of hypersplenism. Blood, 1, 2751.
  • Denys, H. (1887) Etudes sur la coagulation du sang dans un cas de purpura avec diminution conside′rable des plaquettes. La Cellule, 3, 445462.
  • Dixon, R., Rosse, W. & Ebbert, L. (1975) Quantitative determination of antibody in idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura. Correlation of serum and platelet-bound antibody with clinical response. New England Journal of Medicine, 292, 230236.
  • Duke, W.W. (1912) The behavior of the blood platelets in toxemias and haemorrhagic disease: A preliminary report. Bulletin of The Johns Hopkins Hospital, 23, 144.
  • Ehrlich, P. (1879) Methodologische Beiträge zur Physiologie und Pathologie der verschiedenen Formen der Leukocyten. Zeitschrift fur Klinische Medizin, 1, 553560.
  • Eliason, E.L. & Ferguson, L.K. (1932) Splenectomy in Purpura Hemorrhagica. Annals of Surgery, 96, 801829.
  • Emmerich, F., Bal, G., Barakat, A., Milz, J., Muhle, C., Martinez-Gamboa, L., Dorner, T. & Salama, A. (2007) High-level serum B-cell activating factor and promoter polymorphisms in patients with idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura. British Journal of Haematology, 136, 309314.
  • Emmons, R.V., Reid, D.M., Cohen, R.L., Meng, G., Young, N.S., Dunbar, C.E. & Shulman, N.R. (1996) Human thrombopoietin levels are high when thrombocytopenia is due to megakaryocyte deficiency and low when due to increased platelet destruction. Blood, 87, 40684071.
  • Evans, R.S., Takahashi, K., Duane, R.T., Payne, R. & Liu, C. (1951) Primary thrombocytopenic purpura and acquired hemolytic anemia; evidence for a common etiology. AMA Archives of Internal Medicine, 87, 4865.
  • Filion, M.C., Bradley, A.J., Devine, D.V., Decary, F. & Chartrand, P. (1995) Autoreactive T cells in healthy individuals show tolerance in vitro with characteristics similar to but distinct from clonal anergy. European Journal of Immunology, 25, 31233127.
  • Fogarty, P.F., Rick, M.E., Zeng, W., Risitano, A.M., Dunbar, C.E. & Bussel, J.B. (2003) T cell receptor VB repertoire diversity in patients with immune thrombocytopenia following splenectomy. Clinical and Experimental Immunology, 133, 461466.
  • Frank, E. (1915) Die essentielle thrombopenie (Konstitutionelle Purpura-Pseudohämophilie), I: Klinische Bild. Berliner klinische Wochenschrift, 52, 454458.
  • Frederiksen, H. & Schmidt, K. (1999) The incidence of idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura in adults increases with age. Blood, 94, 909913.
  • Garnock-Jones, K.P. & Keam, S.J. (2009) Eltrombopag. Drugs, 69, 567576.
  • Harker, L.A. (1970) Thrombokinetics in idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura. British Journal of Haematology, 19, 95104.
  • Harker, L.A. & Finch, C.A. (1969) Thrombokinetics in man. Journal of Clinical Investigation, 48, 963974.
  • Harrington, W.J., Minnich, V., Hollingsworth, J.W. & Moore, C.V. (1951) Demonstration of a thrombocytopenic factor in the blood of patients with thrombocytopenic purpura. Journal of Laboratory and Clinical Medicine, 38, 110.
  • Hayem, G. (1889) Du Sang et de ses Alterations Anatomiques. G Masson, Paris.
  • Henoch, E. (1899) Vorlesungen über Kinderkrankheiten. 10th edn. (ed. by A.Hirschwald), August Hirschwald, Berlin.
  • Heyns, A.d.P., Badenhorst, P.N., Lotter, M.G., Pieters, H., Wessels, P. & Kotze, H.F. (1986) Platelet turnover and kinetics in immune thrombocytopenic purpura: results with autologous 111In-labeled platelets and homologous 51Cr-labeled platelets differ. Blood, 67, 8692.
  • Hobson, F.C.G. & Witts, L.J. (1940) Platelet-reducing extracts of the spleen. British Medical Journal, 4123, 5051.
  • Houwerzijl, E.J., Blom, N.R., van der Want, J.J., Esselink, M.T., Koornstra, J.J., Smit, J.W., Louwes, H., Vellenga, E. & de Wolf, J.T. (2004) Ultrastructural study shows morphologic features of apoptosis and para-apoptosis in megakaryocytes from patients with idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura. Blood, 103, 500506.
  • Howell, W.H. (1890) Observations upon the occurrence, structure, and function of the giant cells of the marrow. Journal of Morphology, 4, 117130.
  • Imbach, P., Barandun, S., d’Apuzzo, V., Baumgartner, C., Hirt, A., Morell, A., Rossi, E., Schoni, M., Vest, M. & Wagner, H.P. (1981) High-dose intravenous gammaglobulin for idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura in childhood. Lancet, 1, 12281231.
  • Imbach, P., Kuhne, T. & Signer, E. (2002) Historical aspects and present knowledge of idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura. British Journal of Haematology, 119, 894900.
  • Jones, H.W. & Tocantins, L.M. (1933) The history of purpura hemorrhagica. Annals of Medical History, 5, 349359.
  • Kane, I., Ragucci, D., Shatat, I.F., Bussel, J. & Kalpatthi, R. (2010) Comparison of intravenous immune globulin and high dose anti-D immune globulin as initial therapy for childhood immune thrombocytopenic purpura. British Journal of Haematology, 149, 7983.
  • Kaznelson, P. (1916) Verschwinden der ha¨morrhagischen Diathese bei einem Falle von ‘‘essentieller Thrombopenie’’ (Frank) nach Milzexstirpation: splenogene thrombolytische Purpura. Wiener Klinische Wochenschrift, 29, 14511454.
  • Kaznelson, P. (1919) Thrombolytische Purpura. Zeitschrift fur Klinische Medizin, 87, 133164.
  • Kiefel, V., Santoso, S., Weisheit, M. & Mueller-Eckhardt, C. (1987) Monoclonal antibody--specific immobilization of platelet antigens (MAIPA): a new tool for the identification of platelet-reactive antibodies. Blood, 70, 17221726.
  • Kojouri, K., Vesely, S.K., Terrell, D.R. & George, J.N. (2004) Splenectomy for adult patients with idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura: a systematic review to assess long-term platelet count responses, prediction of response, and surgical complications. Blood, 104, 26232634.
  • Kosugi, S., Kurata, Y., Tomiyama, Y., Tahara, T., Kato, T., Tadokoro, S., Shiraga, M., Honda, S., Kanakura, Y. & Matsuzawa, Y. (1996) Circulating thrombopoietin level in chronic immune thrombocytopenic purpura. British Journal of Haematology, 93, 704706.
  • Kuter, D.J. & Gernsheimer, T.B. (2009) Thrombopoietin and platelet production in chronic immune thrombocytopenia. Hematology/Oncology Clinics of North America, 23, 11931211.
  • Kuter, D.J., Beeler, D.L. & Rosenberg, R.D. (1994) The purification of megapoietin: a physiological regulator of megakaryocyte growth and platelet production. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 91, 1110411108.
  • Kuter, D.J., Bussel, J.B., Lyons, R.M., Pullarkat, V., Gernsheimer, T.B., Senecal, F.M., Aledort, L.M., George, J.N., Kessler, C.M., Sanz, M.A., Liebman, H.A., Slovick, F.T., de Wolf, J.T., Bourgeois, E., Guthrie, Jr, T.H., Newland, A., Wasser, J.S., Hamburg, S.I., Grande, C., Lefrere, F., Lichtin, A.E., Tarantino, M.D., Terebelo, H.R., Viallard, J.F., Cuevas, F.J., Go, R.S., Henry, D.H., Redner, R.L., Rice, L., Schipperus, M.R., Guo, D.M. & Nichol, J.L. (2008) Efficacy of romiplostim in patients with chronic immune thrombocytopenic purpura: a double-blind randomised controlled trial. Lancet, 371, 395403.
  • Kuter, D.J., Rummel, M., Boccia, R., Macik, B.G., Pabinger, I., Selleslag, D., Rodeghiero, F., Chong, B.H., Wang, X. & Berger, D.P. (2010) Romiplostim or Standard of Care in Patients with Immune Thrombocytopenia. New England Journal of Medicine, 363, 18891899.
  • Kuwana, M., Kaburaki, J. & Ikeda, Y. (1998) Autoreactive T cells to platelet GPIIb-IIIa in immune thrombocytopenic purpura. Role in production of anti-platelet autoantibody. Journal of Clinical Investigation, 102, 13931402.
  • Kuwana, M., Kaburaki, J., Kitasato, H., Kato, M., Kawai, S., Kawakami, Y. & Ikeda, Y. (2001) Immunodominant epitopes on glycoprotein IIb-IIIa recognized by autoreactive T cells in patients with immune thrombocytopenic purpura. Blood, 98, 130139.
  • Lazarus, A.H. & Crow, A.R. (2003) Mechanism of action of IVIG and anti-D in ITP. Transfusion and Apheresis Science, 28, 249255.
  • Ledingham, J.C.G. (1914) The experimental production of purpura in animals by the introduction of anti-blood-plate sera: a preliminary communication. Lancet, 183, 16731676.
  • van Leeuwen, E.F., van der Ven, J.T., Engelfriet, C.P. & von dem Borne, A.E. (1982) Specificity of autoantibodies in autoimmune thrombocytopenia. Blood, 59, 2326.
  • Li, X. & Hou, M. (2008) Emerging drugs for idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura in adults. Expert Opinion on Emerging Drugs, 13, 237254.
  • Li, S., Wang, L., Zhao, C., Li, L., Peng, J. & Hou, M. (2007) CD8 +  T cells suppress autologous megakaryocyte apoptosis in idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura. British Journal of Haematology, 139, 605611.
  • Lim, S.H., Hale, G., Marcus, R.E., Waldmann, H. & Baglin, T.P. (1993) CAMPATH-1 monoclonal antibody therapy in severe refractory autoimmune thrombocytopenic purpura. British Journal of Haematology, 84, 542544.
  • Lok, S., Kaushansky, K., Holly, R.D., Kuijper, J.L., Lofton-Day, C.E., Oort, P.J., Grant, F.J., Heipel, M.D., Burkhead, S.K., Kramer, J.M., Bell, L.A., Sprecher, C.A., Blumberg, H., Johnson, R., Prunkard, D., Ching, A.F.T., Mathewes, S.L., Bailey, M.C., Forstrom, J.W., Buddle, M.M., Osborn, S.G., Evans, S.J., Sheppard, P.O., Presnell, S.R., O’ Hara, P.J., Hagen, F.S., Roth, G.J. & Foster, D.C. (1994) Cloning and expression of murine thrombopoietin cDNA and stimulation of platelet production in vivo. Nature, 369, 565568.
  • Lusitanus, A. (1556) Curationum medicinalum Centuriae quatuor. Froben, Basileae.
  • Marino, F. (1905) Recherches sur les plaquettes du sang. Comptes Rendus des Seances de la Societe de Biologie et de Ses Filiales, 58, 194196.
  • Mathias, S.D., Gao, S.K., Miller, K.L., Cella, D., Snyder, C., Turner, R., Wu, A., Bussel, J.B., George, J.N., McMillan, R., Wysocki, D.K. & Nichol, J.L. (2008) Impact of chronic Immune Thrombocytopenic Purpura (ITP) on health-related quality of life: a conceptual model starting with the patient perspective. Health and Quality of Life Outcomes, 6, 13.
  • McMillan, R. & Durette, C. (2004) Long-term outcomes in adults with chronic ITP after splenectomy failure. Blood, 104, 956960.
  • McMillan, R., Luiken, G.A., Levy, R., Yelenosky, R. & Longmire, R.L. (1978) Antibody against megakaryocytes in idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura. JAMA, 239, 24602462.
  • McMillan, R., Tani, P., Millard, F., Berchtold, P., Renshaw, L. & Woods, Jr, V.L. (1987) Platelet-associated and plasma anti-glycoprotein autoantibodies in chronic ITP. Blood, 70, 10401045.
  • McMillan, R., Wang, L., Tomer, A., Nichol, J. & Pistillo, J. (2004) Suppression of in vitro megakaryocyte production by antiplatelet autoantibodies from adult patients with chronic ITP. Blood, 103, 13641369.
  • McMillan, R., Bussel, J.B., George, J.N., Lalla, D. & Nichol, J.L. (2008) Self-reported health-related quality of life in adults with chronic immune thrombocytopenic purpura. American Journal of Hematology, 83, 150154.
  • Michel, M., Novoa, M.V. & Bussel, J.B. (2003) Intravenous anti-D as a treatment for immune thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP) during pregnancy. British Journal of Haematology, 123, 142146.
  • Molineux, G. & Newland, A. (2010) Development of romiplostim for the treatment of patients with chronic immune thrombocytopenia: from bench to bedside. British Journal of Haematology, 150, 920.
  • Newland, A.C., Treleaven, J.G., Minchinton, R.M. & Waters, A.H. (1983) High-dose intravenous IgG in adults with autoimmune thrombocytopenia. Lancet, 1, 8487.
  • Newland, A.C., Boots, M.A. & Patterson, K.G. (1984) Intravenous IgG for autoimmune thrombocytopenia in pregnancy. New England Journal of Medicine, 310, 261262.
  • Newman, G.C., Novoa, M.V., Fodero, E.M., Lesser, M.L., Woloski, B.M. & Bussel, J.B. (2001) A dose of 75 microg/kg/d of i.v. anti-D increases the platelet count more rapidly and for a longer period of time than 50 microg/kg/d in adults with immune thrombocytopenic purpura. British Journal of Haematology, 112, 10761078.
  • Neylon, A.J., Saunders, P.W., Howard, M.R., Proctor, S.J. & Taylor, P.R. (2003) Clinically significant newly presenting autoimmune thrombocytopenic purpura in adults: a prospective study of a population-based cohort of 245 patients. British Journal of Haematology, 122, 966974.
  • Nugent, D., McMillan, R., Nichol, J.L. & Slichter, S.J. (2009) Pathogenesis of chronic immune thrombocytopenia: increased platelet destruction and/or decreased platelet production. British Journal of Haematology, 146, 585596.
  • Olsson, B., Andersson, P.O., Jernas, M., Jacobsson, S., Carlsson, B., Carlsson, L.M. & Wadenvik, H. (2003) T-cell-mediated cytotoxicity toward platelets in chronic idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura. Nature Medicine, 9, 11231124.
  • Osler, W. (1874) An account of certain organisms occurring in the liquor sanguinis. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London, 22, 391398.
  • Otanasek, F. & Lee, F.C. (1941) Further observations on thrombocytopen. Journal of Laboratory and Clinical Medicine, 26, 12661273.
  • Patel, V.L., Schwartz, J. & Bussel, J.B. (2008) The effect of anti-CD40 ligand in immune thrombocytopenic purpura. British Journal of Haematology, 141, 545548.
  • Paul, J.T. (1942) Effect of splenic extracts from cases of essential thrombopenic purpura upon platelets and hematopoietic organs of rabbits. Journal of Laboratory and Clinical Medicine, 27, 754762.
  • Pillemer, B.B., Xu, H., Oriss, T.B., Qi, Z. & Ray, A. (2007) Deficient SOCS3 expression in CD4+ CD25+ FoxP3 +  regulatory T cells and SOCS3-mediated suppression of Treg function. European Journal of Immunology, 37, 20822089.
  • Pisciotta, A.V., Stefanini, M. & Dameshek, W. (1953) Studies on platelets X. Morphologic characteristics of megakaryocytes by phase contrast microscopy in normals and in patients with idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura. Blood, 8, 703723.
  • Podolanczuk, A., Lazarus, A.H., Crow, A.R., Grossbard, E. & Bussel, J.B. (2009) Of mice and men: an open-label pilot study for treatment of immune thrombocytopenic purpura by an inhibitor of Syk. Blood, 113, 31543160.
  • Portielje, J.E., Westendorp, R.G., Kluin-Nelemans, H.C. & Brand, A. (2001) Morbidity and mortality in adults with idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura. Blood, 97, 25492554.
  • Provan, D. & Newland, A. (2002) Fifty years of idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP): management of refractory itp in adults. British Journal of Haematology, 118, 933944.
  • Provan, D., Stasi, R., Newland, A.C., Blanchette, V.S., Bolton-Maggs, P., Bussel, J.B., Chong, B.H., Cines, D.B., Gernsheimer, T.B., Godeau, B., Grainger, J., Greer, I., Hunt, B.J., Imbach, P.A., Lyons, G., McMillan, R., Rodeghiero, F., Sanz, M.A., Tarantino, M., Watson, S., Young, J. & Kuter, D.J. (2010) International consensus report on the investigation and management of primary immune thrombocytopenia. Blood, 115, 168186.
  • Psaila, B. & Bussel, J.B. (2008) Refractory immune thrombocytopenic purpura: current strategies for investigation and management. British Journal of Haematology, 143, 1626.
  • Qureshi, A.H., Chaoji, V., Maiguel, D., Faridi, M.H., Barth, C.J., Salem, S.M., Singhal, M., Stoub, D., Krastins, B., Ogihara, M., Zaki, M.J. & Gupta, V. (2009) Proteomic and phospho-proteomic profile of human platelets in basal, resting state: insights into integrin signaling. PLoS ONE, 4, e7627.
  • Rabellino, E.M., Levene, R.B., Leung, L.L. & Nachman, R.L. (1981) Human megakaryocytes II. Expression of platelet proteins in early marrow megakaryocytes. Journal of Experimental Medicine, 154, 88100.
  • Riverius, L. (1668) On pestilential feavers. In: The practice of physick (ed. by CulpepperN.), p. 618. Streator, London.
  • Robb-Smith, A.H. (1967) Why the platelets were discovered. British Journal of Haematology, 13, 618637.
  • Rodeghiero, F., Stasi, R., Gernsheimer, T., Michel, M., Provan, D., Arnold, D.M., Bussel, J.B., Cines, D.B., Chong, B.H., Cooper, N., Godeau, B., Lechner, K., Mazzucconi, M.G., McMillan, R., Sanz, M.A., Imbach, P., Blanchette, V., Kuhne, T., Ruggeri, M. & George, J.N. (2009) Standardization of terminology, definitions and outcome criteria in immune thrombocytopenic purpura of adults and children: report from an international working group. Blood, 113, 23862393.
  • Rolleston, H. (1934) The history of hæmatology. Proceedings of the Royal Society of Medicine, 27, 11611178.
  • Rose, H.J. & Boyer, L.B. (1941) Thrombocytopen: a confirmatory report. Journal of Clinical Investigation, 20, 8186.
  • Salama, A., Mueller-Eckhardt, C. & Kiefel, V. (1983) Effect of intravenous immunoglobulin in immune thrombocytopenia. Lancet, 2, 193195.
  • Saleh, M.N., Gutheil, J., Moore, M., Bunch, P.W., Butler, J., Kunkel, L., Grillo-Lopez, A.J. & LoBuglio, A.F. (2000) A pilot study of the anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody rituximab in patients with refractory immune thrombocytopenia. Seminars in Oncology, 27, 99103.
  • Saleh, M.N., Bussel, J.B., Cheng, G., Meddeb, B., Mayer, B., Bailey, C. & Aivado, M. (2009) Long-Term Treatment of Chronic Immune Thrombocytopenic Purpura with Oral Eltrombopag: Results From the EXTEND Study. Blood (ASH Annual Meeting Abstracts), 114, 682.
  • Sarpatwari, A., Watson, S., Erqou, S., Anderson, H., Grainger, J., Higgins, J.P. & Newland, A.C. (2010a) Heath-related lifestyle in adults and children with primary immune thrombocytopenia (ITP). British Journal of Haematology, 151, 189191.
  • Sarpatwari, A., Bennett, D., Logie, J.W., Shukla, A., Beach, K.J., Newland, A.C., Sanderson, S. & Provan, D. (2010b) Thromboembolic events among adult patients with primary immune thrombocytopenia in the United Kingdom General Practice Research Database. Haematologica, 95, 11671175.
  • Satoh, T., Pandey, J.P., Okazaki, Y., Asahi, A., Kawakami, Y., Ikeda, Y. & Kuwana, M. (2009) Single nucleotide polymorphism of interleukin-1beta associated with Helicobacter pylori infection in immune thrombocytopenic purpura. Tissue Antigens, 73, 353357.
  • de Sauvage, F.J., Hass, P.E., Spencer, S.D., Malloy, B.E., Gurney, A.L., Spencer, S.A., Darbonne, W.C., Henzel, W.J., Wong, S.C., Kuang, W.J., Oles, K.J., Hultgren, B., Solberg, Jr, L.A., Goeddel, D.V. & Eaton, D.L. (1994) Stimulation of megakaryocytopoiesis and thrombopoiesis by the c-Mpl ligand. Nature, 369, 533538.
  • Scaradavou, A., Woo, B., Woloski, B.M., Cunningham-Rundles, S., Ettinger, L.J., Aledort, L.M. & Bussel, J.B. (1997) Intravenous anti-D treatment of immune thrombocytopenic purpura: experience in 272 patients. Blood, 89, 26892700.
  • Schoonen, W.M., Kucera, G., Coalson, J., Li, L., Rutstein, M., Mowat, F., Fryzek, J. & Kaye, J.A. (2009) Epidemiology of immune thrombocytopenic purpura in the General Practice Research Database. British Journal of Haematology, 145, 235244.
  • Schultze, M. (1865) Ein heizbarer Objecttisch und seineVerwendung bei Untersuchungen des Blutes. Archiv für mikroscopische Anatomie, 1, 114.
  • Semple, J.W. & Freedman, J. (1994) Natural killer cell numbers and activity in patients with chronic autoimmune thrombocytopenic purpura. Blood, 83, 870871.
  • Semple, J.W., Bruce, S. & Freedman, J. (1991) Suppressed natural killer cell activity in patients with chronic autoimmune thrombocytopenic purpura. American Journal of Hematology, 37, 258262.
  • Semple, J.W., Milev, Y., Cosgrave, D., Mody, M., Hornstein, A., Blanchette, V. & Freedman, J. (1996) Differences in serum cytokine levels in acute and chronic autoimmune thrombocytopenic purpura: relationship to platelet phenotype and antiplatelet T-cell reactivity. Blood, 87, 42454254.
  • Shimomura, T., Fujimura, K., Takafuta, T., Fujii, T., Katsutani, S., Noda, M., Fujimoto, T. & Kuramoto, A. (1996) Oligoclonal accumulation of T cells in peripheral blood from patients with idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura. British Journal of Haematology, 95, 732737.
  • Shulman, N.R., Marder, V.J. & Weinrach, R.S. (1965) Similarities between known antiplatelet antibodies and the factor responsible for thrombocytopenia in idiopathic purpura. Physiologic, serologic and isotopic studies. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 124, 499542.
  • Smith, E. (1886) A practical treatise on disease in children. William Wood & Company, New York.
  • Spence, A.W. (1928) The results of splenectomy for purpura hæmorrhagica. British Journal of Surgery, 15, 466499.
  • Stahl, C.P., Zucker-Franklin, D. & McDonald, T.P. (1986) Incomplete antigenic cross-reactivity between platelets and megakaryocytes: relevance to ITP. Blood, 67, 421428.
  • Stasi, R., Pagano, A., Stipa, E. & Amadori, S. (2001) Rituximab chimeric anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody treatment for adults with chronic idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura. Blood, 98, 952957.
  • Stasi, R., Del Poeta, G., Stipa, E., Evangelista, M.L., Trawinska, M.M., Cooper, N. & Amadori, S. (2007) Response to B-cell depleting therapy with rituximab reverts the abnormalities of T cell subsets in patients with idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura. Blood, 110, 29242930.
  • Stasi, R., Evangelista, M.L., Stipa, E., Buccisano, F., Venditti, A. & Amadori, S. (2008a) Idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura: current concepts in pathophysiology and management. Thrombosis and Haemostasis, 99, 413.
  • Stasi, R., Cooper, N., Del Poeta, G., Stipa, E., Laura Evangelista, M., Abruzzese, E. & Amadori, S. (2008b) Analysis of regulatory T-cell changes in patients with idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura receiving B cell-depleting therapy with rituximab. Blood, 112, 11471150.
  • Stasi, R., Willis, F., Shannon, M.S. & Gordon-Smith, E.C. (2009a) Infectious causes of chronic immune thrombocytopenia. Hematology/Oncology Clinics of North America, 23, 12751297.
  • Stasi, R., Sarpatwari, A., Segal, J.B., Osborn, J., Evangelista, M.L., Cooper, N., Provan, D., Newland, A., Amadori, S. & Bussel, J.B. (2009b) Effects of eradication of Helicobacter pylori infection in patients with immune thrombocytopenic purpura: a systematic review. Blood, 113, 12311240.
  • Stoll, D., Cines, D.B., Aster, R.H. & Murphy, S. (1985) Platelet kinetics in patients with idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura and moderate thrombocytopenia. Blood, 65, 584588.
  • Suzuki, T., Matsushima, M., Shirakura, K., Koike, J., Masui, A., Takagi, A., Shirasugi, Y., Ogawa, Y., Shirai, T. & Mine, T. (2008) Association of inflammatory cytokine gene polymorphisms with platelet recovery in idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura patients after the eradication of Helicobacter pylori. Digestion, 77, 7378.
  • Thakur, M.L., Welch, M.J., Joist, J.H. & Coleman, R.E. (1976) Indium-111 labeled platelets: studies on preparation and evaluation of in vitro and in vivo functions. Thrombosis Research, 9, 345357.
  • Tidy, L. (1928) The haemorrhagic diathesis. Proceedings of the Royal Society of Medicine, 21, 10331052.
  • Troland, C.E. & Lee, F.C. (1938) Thrombocytopen, a substance in the extract from the spleen of patients with idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura that reduces the number of blood platelets. Journal of the American Medical Association, 111, 221226.
  • Uihlein, A. (1942) Effect of Injection of tissue extracts on the number of blood platelets. Journal of Laboratory and Clinical Medicine, 28, 157167.
  • Vesely, S.K., Perdue, J.J., Rizvi, M.A., Terrell, D.R. & George, J.N. (2004) Management of adult patients with persistent idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura following splenectomy: a systematic review. Annals of Internal Medicine, 140, 112120.
  • Vinci, G., Tabilio, A., Deschamps, J.F., Van Haeke, D., Henri, A., Guichard, J., Tetteroo, P., Lansdorp, P.M., Hercend, T., Vainchenker, W. & Breton-Gorius, J. (1984) Immunological study of in vitro maturation of human megakaryocytes. British Journal of Haematology, 56, 589605.
  • Werlhof, P.G. (1735) Disquisitio medica et philologica de variolis et anthracibus, signis differentiis, medelis disserit etc. Nicolai Foersteri, Hannover.
  • Whipple, A.O. (1926) Splenectomy as a therapeutic measure in thrombocytopenic purpura haemorrhagica. Surgery, Gynecology & Obstetrics, 42, 329341.
  • Willan, R. (1808) On cutaneous diseases. J. Jonson, London.
  • Willis, F., Marsh, J.C., Bevan, D.H., Killick, S.B., Lucas, G., Griffiths, R., Ouwehand, W., Hale, G., Waldmann, H. & Gordon-Smith, E.C. (2001) The effect of treatment with Campath-1H in patients with autoimmune cytopenias. British Journal of Haematology, 114, 891898.
  • Wintrobe, M.M., Cartwright, G.E., Palmer, J.G., Kuhns, W.J. & Samuels, L.T. (1951) Effect of corticotrophin and cortisone on the blood in various disorders in man. AMA Archives of Internal Medicine, 88, 310336.
  • Woodforde, T. (1828) Case of purpura hæmorrhagica. The Lancet, 10, 576576.
  • Woods, Jr, V.L., Kurata, Y., Montgomery, R.R., Tani, P., Mason, D., Oh, E.H. & McMillan, R. (1984a) Autoantibodies against platelet glycoprotein Ib in patients with chronic immune thrombocytopenic purpura. Blood, 64, 156160.
  • Woods, Jr, V.L., Oh, E.H., Mason, D. & McMillan, R. (1984b) Autoantibodies against the platelet glycoprotein IIb/IIIa complex in patients with chronic ITP. Blood, 63, 368375.
  • Wright, J.H. (1906) The origin and nature of blood plates. Boston Medical and Surgical Journal, 154, 643645.
  • Yoshida, Y. (2008) The light and shadow of Paul Kaznelson: his life and contribution to hematology. Annals of Hematology, 87, 877879.
  • Yu, J., Heck, S., Patel, V., Levan, J., Yu, Y., Bussel, J.B. & Yazdanbakhsh, K. (2008) Defective circulating CD25 regulatory T cells in patients with chronic immune thrombocytopenic purpura. Blood, 112, 13251328.
  • Zhao, H., Du, W., Wang, D., Gu, D., Xue, F., Ge, J., Sui, T. & Yang, R. (2010) Single nucleotide polymorphism in the methyl-CpG binding domain 4 gene and the risk for immune thrombocytopenic purpura in Chinese population. Platelets, 21, 132136.