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Abstract

Objectives:  Aqueous Viscum album L. extracts are widely used for anti-cancer therapies. Due to their low solubility, triterpenes (which are known to act on cancers), do not occur in aqueous extracts in significant amounts. Using cyclodextrins, we have found it possible to solubilize mistletoe triterpene acids and to determine their effects on acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL) in vitro and in vivo.

Materials and methods:  A C.B-17/SCID model of pre-B ALL (NALM-6) was used to test efficacy and mechanisms of treatment with lectin- and triterpene acid containing preparations in vivo. Cytotoxicity of increasing concentrations of V. album L. preparations was assessed in vitro. Apoptosis was determined using mitochondrial membrane potential measurements, annexin V/PI, western blot analyses and caspase inhibitor assays.

Results:  Solubilized triterpene acid- or lectin-containing V. album L. extracts inhibited cell proliferation and demonstrated cytotoxic properties in vitro. Annexin V/PI and mitochondrial membrane potential assays indicated that dose-dependent induction of apoptosis was the main mechanism. Combination (viscumTT) of lectin- (viscum) and triterpene-containing (TT) extracts resulted in greatest induction of apoptosis. Furthermore, caspase activity demonstrated that these extracts were able to induce apoptosis through both caspase-8 and -9 dependent pathways. In vivo experimentation showed that treatment of mice with viscumTT combination prolonged mean survival to 50.5 days compared to 39.3 days in the phosphate-buffered saline group.

Conclusion:  Here for the first time, we have demonstrated that either solubilized triterpene acids or lectins and combinations thereof, induce dose-dependent apoptosis in the ALL cell line NALM-6 via caspase-8 and -9 dependent pathways.