Attachment insecurity predicts child active resistance to parental requests in a compliance task
Article first published online: 7 MAR 2012
© 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd
Child: Care, Health and Development
Volume 39, Issue 2, pages 277–287, March 2013
How to Cite
Kok, R., van IJzendoorn, M. H., Linting, M., Bakermans-Kranenburg, M. J., Tharner, A., Luijk, M. P. C. M., Székely, E., Jaddoe, V. W. V., Hofman, A., Verhulst, F. C. and Tiemeier, H. (2013), Attachment insecurity predicts child active resistance to parental requests in a compliance task. Child: Care, Health and Development, 39: 277–287. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2214.2012.01374.x
- Issue published online: 25 JAN 2013
- Article first published online: 7 MAR 2012
- Accepted for publication 14 January 2012
Aim We studied the effects of early mother–child relationship quality and child temperament on the development of child compliance and active resistance in a large population-based cohort study (n= 534).
Background Parenting and the quality of the parent–child relationship can either hamper or support the development of child compliance directly or in interplay with child temperament.
Methods Mother–infant dyads were observed at 14 and 36 months and maternal and child behaviours were independently coded. The quality of compliance was assessed at 36 months in a clean-up task. Child behaviour was coded using a system differentiating between two dimensions: Compliance and Active Resistance.
Results Controlling for concurrent maternal sensitivity, child temperament, and gender children with a more insecure attachment relationship showed higher levels of active resistance during Clean-Up than more securely attached children. The effect was stronger for boys than for girls and mainly driven by attachment avoidance.
Conclusions Early attachment is an important contributor to child socialization of moral behaviour.