Background Airway inflammation and remodelling are important pathophysiologic features of chronic asthma. Although current steroid use demonstrates anti-inflammatory activity, there are limited effects on the structural changes in the lung tissue.
Objective We have used a mouse model of prolonged allergen challenge that exhibits many of the salient features of airway remodelling in order to investigate the anti-remodelling effects of Budesonide.
Methods Treatment was administered therapeutically, with dosing starting after the onset of established eosinophilic airway inflammation and hyper-reactivity.
Results Budesonide administration reduced airway hyper-reactivity and leukocyte infiltration in association with a decrease in production of the Th2 mediators, IL-4, IL-13 and eotaxin-1. A reduction in peribronchiolar collagen deposition and mucus production was observed. Moreover, our data show for the first time that, Budesonide treatment regulated active transforming growth factor (TGF)-β signalling with a reduction in the expression of pSmad 2 and the concomitant up-regulation of Smad 7 in lung tissue sections.
Conclusions Therefore, we have determined that administration of Budesonide modulates the progression of airway remodelling following prolonged allergen challenge via regulation of inflammation and active TGF-β signalling.