Factors in allergen-induced asthma: relevance of the intensity of the airways allergic reaction and non-specific bronchial reactivity

Authors


Reprint requests to: Dr F. E. Hargreave, Department of Medicine, St Joseph's Hospital, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada.

Summary

Early asthmatic responses (EAR) of similar severity were produced by allergen inhalation challenges in nine asthmatic subjects. The severity of the airways allergic reaction was estimated by measuring the skin test weal size produced by the same dilution of allergen which caused the EAR. The non-specific bronchial reactivity was assessed by inhalation of increasing concentrations of histamine acid phosphate. Possible relationships between the severity of the airways allergic reaction, the level of non-specific bronchial hyper-reactivity and the pattern of asthmatic response were examined.

There was a marked inverse correlation between the required severity of the airways allergic reaction and the non-specific bronchial reactivity (log10) of the individual (r =−0·96, P < 0·001). The EAR was followed by a late asthmatic response (LAR) in five subjects. There was no evident correlation between the magnitude of the EAR and that of the LAR. In addition, no correlation was obtained between the pattern of response in terms of EAR or LAR and the severity of the allergic reaction, or the level of non-specific bronchial reactivity. These results indicate that the allergic reaction and the non-specific bronchial reactivity are interrelated in the production of allergen-induced asthma. Thus a mild allergic reaction will induce an EAR in patients with markedly increased non-specific bronchial reactivity, whereas a severe allergic reaction is required to produce an EAR in those with only slightly increased non-specific reactivity. The lack of correlation between the occurrence of the LAR and the intensity of the airways allergic reaction, the non-specific bronchial reactivity and the intensity of the EAR indicates that other factors are involved in the development of LAR.

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