Of twenty-one infants with atopic dermatitis, twenty were treated with a strict elimination diet for a period of up to 6 weeks. Seven infants healed and twelve improved. The infants who healed were less than 6 months old and had had a short duration of dermatitis. For one infant the skin condition was unchanged. Another infant was breast-fed throughout the period with dermatitis. Blood eosinophilia and/or elevated serum IgE commonly found on admission decreased significantly (P< 0.01) during the diet period. On challenge with cows’ milk, twelve infants were considered as intolerant. At the age of 2 years the dermatitis had cleared in all but four children. Of these four children, two were still cows’ milk intolerant. Another two infants were also cows’ milk intolerant, but without dermatitis.