Abstract. Sixteen children with immediate-type cow's milk allergy were challenged with increasing amounts of cow's milk. Gastrointestinal permeability was investigated before and after challenge by the 6-hr urinary recovery of a mixture of different-sized polyethyleneglycols (PEG 400 and PEG 1000). The results were related to clinical symptoms in the individual patients. The majority of the children displayed changed permeability characteristics after the challenge, both with respect to the maximum uptake of a small test molecule (usually 370 dalton PEG) and/or a large molecule (1074 dalton PFG), and to size-dependent exclusion of probe molecules. When corrected for the dose of milk taken, the children showing the most severe immediate-type symptoms also displayed the greatest alteration of permeability. Treatment with sodium cromoglycate (SCG) before the challenge diminished the effect on the uptake of probe molecules, usually decreased the severity of elicited symptoms, allowing about a tenfold increase in the milk dose. Cow's milk challenge in healthy children caused only minor permeability changes, whereas challenge in the sensitized subjects significantly changed (increased or decreased) the recovery of a large test molecule. The difference between healthy and allergic subjects was most obvious when correcting for dose of milk ingested. We conclude that (i) oral challenge with cow's milk in allergic subjects affects the mucosal barrier, and (ii) peroral treatment with SCG moderates immediate hypersensitivity reactions with respect to both tolerated antigen dose and intestinal permeability properties.