Spontaneous histamine release (SHR) in whole blood was assessed before and after 4 months of specific immunotherapy (SIT) for allergic rhinoconjunctivitis in 32 patients. Spontaneous histamine release was significantly enhanced (P < 0.05) in patients prior to immunotherapy compared with 20 controls. Spontaneous histamine release decreased significantly in patients after 4 months of specific immunotherapy (P < 0.04) and almost reached the same values as spontaneous histamine release in controls. Clinical success of treatment after 4 months was seen in 15 patients (improvement 50%), 10 of whom showed a significant decrease in spontaneous histamine release. Decrease of spontaneous histamine release after 4 months indicates the efficacy of specific immunotherapy already at an early stage of treatment. Assessment of spontaneous histamine release appears to be a useful and easily performable method for monitoring success of treatment of patients during specific immunotherapy.