We have reported the presence of a histamine synthesizing enzyme, histidine decarboxylase (HDC), and histamine degrading enzymes, histamine N-methyltransferase (HMT) and histaminase (diamine oxidase, DAO) in human nasal mucosa and the histamine content of the mucosa. In this study, we demonstrate the influences of the toluene diisocyanate (TDI) treatment on the histamine content and these enzyme activities in guinea-pigs as an animal model of respiratory hypersensitivity. Application of TDI to the nasal vestibuli induced intense nasal allergy-like and mild asthma-like responses in TDI-sensitized guinea pigs. Increases in the histamine content and HDC and HMT activities were observed in the nasal mueosa and lung of TDI-sensitized guinea pigs. No apparent changes in the histaminase activities were observed in either the nasal mucosa or the lung. These data suggest that the turnover rate of histamine is increased in the nasal mucosa and the lung of guinea pigs with respiratory hypersensitivity.