Codeine-induced histamine release in intact human skin monitored by skin microdialysis technique: comparison ofintradermal injections with an atraumatic intraprobe drug delivery system



Background The skin microdiallysis technique makes it possible to measure histamine release in intact human skin in vivo directly. In this study we have used the microdialysis technique to characterize histamine release by codeine after intracutaneous injectioin and following skin challenge by a novel atraumatic delivery technique.

Objective The purpose of the study was to compare histamine release in human skin by codeine. delivered by an intraprobe drug delivery system (IPD) and intracutaneous injections (ICT), with respect to dose-response relations, kinetics of histamine appearance and decay, corelations between histamine release and skin respones, and reproducibility.

Methods Hollow dialysis fibres were inserted intradermally in 12 healthy subjects. Twelve fibres were inserted in each subjects, six fibres in each arm. Each fibre was perfused at a rate of 3 μL/min, and samples were collected in 2 min fractions. By the IPD technique, codeine was administrered to the skin by adding codeine to the perfusion medium. Sequential IPD challenges were performed in one arm. and ICTs were done on the other arm.

Results Sixfold serial dilutions of codeine (0.01-3 mg/mL) caused a significant doserelated histamine release by ICT and IPD. Peak histamine release was found within the first 4 min after skin challenge by ICT and IPD, followed by a fast decline with a dialysate histamine half life of approximately 2-3 min. Peak hisamine release was linearly correlates with cumulative release of the 20 min sampling period, and histamine release correlated with weal soze. The coefficient of variation on peak histamine releae was 18.9% and 4.8% for codeine ICT and IPD, respectively.

Conclusioin We have described in detail codeine-induced histamine release in intact human skin in vivo by the microdialysis technique. It was possible to administer codeine atraumaticallyl to the skin by intraprobe delivery. The skin microdialysis codeine atraumaticallly to the skin by intraprobe delivery. The skin microdialysis technique opens up possibilities for measurement of infllammatory mediators release in normal and diseases skin, and it will be possible to deliver immunopharmacologically active drugsto the skin by intraprobe delivery.